Effects of clioquinol on memory impairment and the neurochemical modifications induced by scrapie infection in golden hamsters.
ABSTRACT Prion protein (PrP) is a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons and glial cells. Its pathological isoform (PrP(res)) is protease resistant, and involved in the pathogenesis of a number of transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs). One common feature of neurodegenerative diseases, including TSEs, is oxidative stress, which may be responsible not only for the dysfunction or death of neuronal cells, but also cognitive deficits. Clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol) chelates zinc and copper, which are involved in the deposition of amyloid plaques and acts as an antioxidant; increased lipid peroxidation has also been demonstrated in the early phases of PrP propagation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of clioquinol on the changes in motor and cognitive behaviours induced by scrapie infection, as well as its effects on oxidative stress and the neurotransmitters known to be involved in motor and cognitive functions. The results show that clioquinol counteracts the massive memory deficit induced by scrapie infection. This effect is not paralleled by neurochemical changes because the levels of all of the biogenic amines and their metabolites were reduced despite clioquinol treatment. The main biochemical change induced by clioquinol was a marked reduction in lipid peroxidation at all time points. The antioxidant effect of clioquinol can reduce functional impairment and thus improve memory, but clioquinol does not reduce PrP deposition or synapse loss, as indicated by the unchanged Western blot, histopathological and histochemical findings.
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: The misfolding and the aggregation of specific proteins are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, specifically Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). In TSEs, neuronal loss and inflammation are associated with the accumulation of the misfolded isoform (PrP(sc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). Therefore we tested the hypothesis that augmenting a natural anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs) will delay lethality. EpFAs are highly potent but enzymatically labile molecules produced by the actions of a number of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Stabilization of these bioactive lipids by inhibiting their degradation mediated by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) results in potent anti-inflammatory effects in multiple disease models. MAIN METHODS: Mice were infected with the mouse-adapted RML strain of scrapie by intracerebral or intraperitoneal routes. Animals received the sEH inhibitor, by oral route, administrated in drinking water or vehicle (PEG400). Infected mice were euthanized at a standard clinical end point. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses of brain tissue confirmed the presence of pathology related to prion infection. KEY FINDINGS: Oral administration of the sEHI did not affect the very short survival time of the intracerebral prion infection group. However, mice infected by intraperitoneal route and treated with t-AUCB survived significantly longer than the control group mice (p < 0.001). SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the idea that inhibition of sEH or augmentation of the natural EpFA signalling in the brain offers a potential and different route to understand prion diseases and may become a therapeutic strategy for diseases involving neuroinflammation.Life sciences 05/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The translocation of synaptic Zn(2+) to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn(2+) neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn(2+) in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ), a zinc ionophore. Zn(2+) delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn(2+) levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl(2) into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn(2+) in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn(2+) and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn(2+) in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn(2+). The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28615. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- Learning Disabilities, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0269-4