Coactivator selective regulation of androgen receptor activity

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, M130, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, United States.
Steroids (Impact Factor: 2.64). 09/2009; 74(8):669-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2009.02.007
Source: PubMed


The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand activated nuclear receptor, which regulates transcription and stimulates growth of androgen dependent prostate cancer. To regulate transcription, AR recruits a series of coactivators that modify chromatin and facilitate transcription. However, information on ligand and target gene-specific requirements for coactivators is limited. We compared the actions of the p160 coactivators SRC-1 and SRC-3/RAC3 with SRA (steroid receptor RNA activator). All three coactivate AR in the presence of agonist as expected. However, overexpression of either SRC-1 or SRC-3 increased AR activity in response to the partial antagonist, cyproterone acetate, whereas SRA was unable to stimulate AR activity under these conditions. Using siRNA to reduce expression of these coactivators in LNCaP cells, we also found promoter specific requirement for these coactivators. SRC-3 is required for optimal androgen dependent induction of PSA, TMPRSS2, and PMEPA1 whereas SRA is required only for optimal induction of the TMPRSS2 gene. These data indicate that different groups of AR target genes have distinct requirements for coactivators and response to AR ligands.

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Available from: Irina U Agoulnik, Mar 12, 2014
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    • "Coregulators are integral to the normal function of steroid receptors and the development and progression of a wide spectrum of human diseases [18]. AR coregulators stimulate or decrease AR activity in a promoter specific manner [19]. Therefore, changes in particular coregulator expression and regulation will have distinct effects on AR target genes and the AR transcriptome. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prostate gland is exquisitely sensitive to androgen receptor (AR) signaling. AR signaling is obligatory for prostate development and changes in AR levels, its ligands or shifts in AR mode of action are reflected in the physiology of the prostate. The AR is intimately linked to prostate cancer biology through the regulation of epithelial proliferation, suppression of apoptosis and the development of castration-resistant disease. Thus, AR is the primary therapeutic target in various prostate diseases such as BPH and cancer. Although some tumors lose AR expression, most retain the AR and have elevated levels and/or shifts in activity that are required for tumor progression and metastasis. New AR inhibitors currently in clinical trials with higher receptor affinity and specificity may improve prostate cancer patient outcome. Several events play an important role in initiation, primary tumor development and metastatic spread. Androgen receptor activity and promoter specificity change due to altered coregulator expression. Changes in epigenetic surveillance alter the AR cistrome. Both systemic and local inflammation increases with PCa progression affecting AR levels, activity, and requirement for ligand. Our current understanding of AR biology suggest that global androgen suppression may drive the development of castration-resistant disease and therefore the question remains: Does effective inhibition of AR activity mark the end of the road for PCa or only a sharp turn toward a different type of malignancy?
    World Journal of Urology 09/2011; 30(3):279-85. DOI:10.1007/s00345-011-0743-7 · 2.67 Impact Factor
    • "Almost 200 AR coregulators have now been identified (reviewed by Heemers and Tindall.[18] These proteins have specific and distinct functions, either enhancing (coactivators) or repressing (corepressors) AR activity, depending on the target gene.[53] However, unlike general and specific transcription factors, they do not significantly alter the basal transcription rate and do not typically possess DNA binding capabilities. "
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis plays a critical role in the development, function and homeostasis of the prostate. The classical action of AR is to regulate gene transcriptional processes via AR nuclear translocation, binding to androgen response elements on target genes and recruitment of, or crosstalk with, transcription factors. Prostate cancer initiation and progression is also uniquely dependent on AR. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the standard of care for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Despite an initial favorable response, almost all patients invariably progress to a more aggressive, castrate-resistant phenotype. Considerable evidence now supports the concept that development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is causally related to continued transactivation of AR. Understanding the critical events and complexities of AR signaling in the progression to CRPC is essential in developing successful future therapies. This review provides a synopsis of AR structure and signaling in prostate cancer progression, with a special focus on recent findings on the role of AR in CRPC. Clinical implications of these findings and potential directions for future research are also outlined.
    Journal of Carcinogenesis 08/2011; 10(1):20. DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.83937
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