Nanomechanics of Full-Length Nebulin: An Elastic Strain Gauge in the Skeletal Muscle Sarcomere

Muscle Proteomics and Nanotechnology Section, Laboratory of Muscle Biology, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Langmuir (Impact Factor: 4.46). 06/2009; 25(13):7496-505. DOI: 10.1021/la9009898
Source: PubMed


Nebulin, a family of giant modular proteins (MW 700-800 kDa), acts as a F-actin thin filament ruler and calcium-linked regulator of actomyosin interaction. The nanomechanics of full length, native rabbit nebulin was investigated with an atomic force microscope by tethering, bracketing, and stretching full-length molecules via pairs of site-specific antibodies that were attached covalently, one to a protein resistant self-assembled monolayer of oligoethylene glycol and the other to the cantilever. Using this new nanomechanics platform that enables the identification of single molecule events via an unbiased analysis of detachment force and distance of all force curves, we showed that nebulin is elastic and extends to approximately 1 microm by external force up to an antibody detachment force of approximately 300-400 pN. Upon stretching, nebulin unravels and yields force spectra with craggy mountain range profiles with variable numbers and heights of force peaks. The peak spacings, analyzed by the model-independent, empirical Hilbert-Huang transform method, displayed underlying periodicities at approximately 15 and approximately 22 nm that may result from the unfolding of one or more nebulin modules between force peaks. Nebulin may act as an elastic strain gauge that interacts optimally with actin only under appropriate strain and stress. This stretch to match protein ruler may also exert a compressive force that stabilizes thin filaments against stress during contraction. We propose that the elasticity of nebulin is integral and essential in the muscle sarcomere.

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Available from: Jeffrey Forbes, May 22, 2014
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    • "In 2009, Yadavalli et al. reported that they extracted full-length nebulin from rabbit longissimus dorsi muscle using 0.45% sodium deoxycholate (DOC), and then purified it with an NaCl gradient in the presence of 0.45% DOC. However, the detailed preparation method has not been published yet [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nebulin, a giant, actin-binding protein, is the largest member of a family of proteins (including N-RAP, nebulette, lasp-1 and lasp-2) that are assembled in a variety of cytoskeletal structures, and expressed in different tissues. For decades, nebulin has been thought to act as a molecular ruler, specifying the precise length of actin filaments in skeletal muscle. However, emerging evidence suggests that nebulin should not be viewed as a ruler but as an actin filament stabilizer required for length maintenance. Nebulin has also been implicated recently in an array of regulatory functions independent of its role in actin filament length regulation. In this review, we discuss the current evolutionary, biochemical, and functional data for the nebulin family of proteins - a family whose members, both large and small, function as cytoskeletal scaffolds and stabilizers.
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