'Toxgnostics': an unmet need in cancer medicine.
ABSTRACT If we were to summarize the rationale that underpins medical oncology in a Latin aphorism, it might be 'veneno ergo sum'; that is, I poison, therefore I am. The burden of chemotherapy-associated toxicity is well recognized, but we have relatively few tools that increase the precision of anticancer drug prescribing. We propose a shift in emphasis from the focussed study of polymorphisms in drug metabolic pathways in small sets of patients to broader agnostic analyses to systematically correlate germline genetic variants with adverse events in large, well-defined cancer populations. Thus, we propose the new science of 'toxgnostics' (that is, the systematic, agnostic study of genetic predictors of toxicity from anticancer therapy).
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ABSTRACT: Irinotecan (CPT-11) is metabolized by esterase to form a SN-38, which is further conjugated by UGT1A1. Genetic polymorphism has been shown in a promoter region of UGT1A1 and is related to its activity. We investigated whether there might be an inter-individual difference in pharmacokinetics of SN-38 and its glucuronide, depending on the genotypes of UGT1A1. Nine male patients with lung cancer were treated with irinotecan (50 mg/m2) and carboplatin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with full sampling plasma data. Genotypes were determined by analyzing the sequence of TATA box of UGT1A1 of genomic DNA from the patients. The genotyping analysis revealed one heterozygote (6/7) and one homozygote (7/7) for (TA)7TAA allele (UGT1A1*28). The remaining seven patients were homozygote for (TA)6TAA allele (6/6, wild type). The metabolic ratios (SN-38/SN-38 glucuronide) in the patient with 7/7 genotype were uncharacteristically higher than those in the patients with other genotypes (6/6 and 6/7). Biliary index was 6980 versus 2180 +/- 1110 (range 840-3730) in patients with 7/7 versus 6/6 genotypes, respectively. These results support the idea that the patient with 7/7 genotype has an impaired capacity for glucuronidation of SN-38.Annals of Oncology 09/1998; 9(8):845-7. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A relationship between fluorouracil (5-FU) dose and response has been previously shown in advanced colorectal cancer. In a previous study with 5-FU stepwise dose escalation in a weekly regimen, and pharmacokinetic monitoring, we defined a therapeutic range for 5-FU plasma levels: 2,000 to 3,000 microg/L (area under the concentration-time curve at 0 to 8 hours [AUC0-8], 16 to 24 mg x h/L). The current study investigated 5-FU therapeutic intensification with individual dose adjustment in a multicentric phase II prospective trial. Weekly high-dose 5-FU was administered by 8-hour infusion with 400 mg/m2 leucovorin. The initial dose of 5-FU (1,300 mg/m2) was adapted weekly according to 5-FU plasma levels, to reach the therapeutic range previously determined. A total of 152 patients entered the study from December 1991 to December 1994: 117 patients with measurable metastatic disease and 35 with assessable disease. Toxicity was mainly diarrhea (39%, with 5% grade 3) and hand-foot syndrome (30%, with 2% grade 3). Among 117 patients with measurable disease, 18 had a complete response (CR), 48 a partial response (PR), 35 a minor response (MR) and stable disease (SD), and 16 progressive disease (PD). Median overall survival time was 19 months. The 5-FU therapeutic plasma range was rapidly reached with a variable 5-FU dose in the patient population: mean, 1,803 +/- 386 mg/m2/wk (range, 950 to 3,396). Thirteen patients were immediately in the toxic zone, whereas 51 required a > or = 50% dose increase. Individual 5-FU dose adjustment with pharmacokinetic monitoring provided a high survival rate and percentage of responses, with good tolerance.Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/1998; 16(4):1470-8. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inherited deficiency in mephenytoin hydroxylation was observed in a family study. It is important that the propositus was of the extensive metabolizer phenotype for the genetically controlled hydroxylation of debrisoquine. Thus, a genetic polymorphism of drug hydroxylation was suspected for mephenytoin. A population study of mephenytoin hydroxylation, combined with identification of extensive and poor debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotypes, was carried out in 221 unrelated normal volunteers. Twelve of them (5%) exhibited defective aromatic hydroxylation of mephenytoin, and 23 (10%) could be identified as poor metabolizers of debrisoquine. Amongst these 35 subjects with a drug hydroxylation deficiency, 3 (or 0.5%; 1 female, 2 males) displayed both defects simultaneously. A panel study of 10 extensive and 10 poor metabolizers of mephenytoin showed that the ability to perform aromatic hydroxylation of the demethylated mephenytoin metabolite nirvanol (5-phenyl-5-ethylhydantoin) was co-inherited with the mephenytoin hydroxylation polymorphism. Family studies suggested that poor metabolizer phenotypes of nirvanol and mephenytoin were most likely to have the homozygous genotype for an autosomal recessive allele of deficient aromatic drug hydroxylation. Intra-subject comparison of the debrisoquine and mephenytoin hydroxylation phenotypes in these subjects indicated that deficiency in the two drug hydroxylations occurred independently. Consequently, the co-inheritance of extensive and poor hydroxylation of mephenytoin and nirvanol, respectively, represents a new drug hydroxylation polymorphism in man.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/1984; 26(6):753-9. · 2.70 Impact Factor