G-CSF does not influence C2C12 myogenesis despite receptor expression in healthy and dystrophic skeletal muscle

Frontiers in Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2014; 5:170. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00170
Source: PubMed


Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases recovery of rodent skeletal muscles after injury, and increases muscle function in rodent models of neuromuscular disease. However, the mechanisms by which G-CSF mediates these effects are poorly understood. G-CSF acts by binding to the membrane spanning G-CSFR and activating multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Expression of the G-CSFR within the haematopoietic system is well known, but more recently it has been demonstrated to be expressed in other tissues. However, comprehensive characterization of G-CSFR expression in healthy and diseased skeletal muscle, imperative before implementing G-CSF as a therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle conditions, has been lacking. Here we show that the G-CSFR is expressed in proliferating C2C12 myoblasts, differentiated C2C12 myotubes, human primary skeletal muscle cell cultures and in mouse and human skeletal muscle. In mdx mice, a model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), G-CSF mRNA and protein was down-regulated in limb and diaphragm muscle, but circulating G-CSF ligand levels were elevated. G-CSFR mRNA in the muscles of mdx mice was up-regulated however steady-state levels of the protein were down-regulated. We show that G-CSF does not influence C2C12 myoblast proliferation, differentiation or phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3, and Erk1/2. Media change alone was sufficient to elicit increases in Akt, STAT3, and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in C2C12 muscle cells and suggest previous observations showing a G-CSF increase in phosphoprotein signaling be viewed with caution. These results suggest that the actions of G-CSF may require the interaction with other cytokines and growth factors in vivo, however these data provides preliminary evidence supporting the investigation of G-CSF for the management of muscular dystrophy.

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Available from: Paul A Della Gatta, Jul 15, 2014
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    • "The G-CSFR was also measured following eccentric resistance exercise and remained unaltered in skeletal muscle tissue. We have previously shown that the G-CSFR is downregulated in the mdx mouse, a rodent model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Wright and others 2014). Therefore, the G-CSF/G-CSFR may be regulated in chronic diseased skeletal muscle, but not in healthy muscle or following aseptic inflammation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) binds to its receptor (G-CSFR) to stimulate hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, myelopoiesis, and the production and activation of neutrophils. In response to exercise-induced muscle damage, G-CSF is increased in circulation and G-CSFR has recently been identified in skeletal muscle cells. While G-CSF/G-CSFR activation mediates pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, our understanding of the role and regulation in the muscle is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro and in vivo, the role and regulation of G-CSF and G-CSFR in skeletal muscle under conditions of muscle inflammation and damage. First, C2C12 myotubes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with and without G-CSF to determine if G-CSF modulates the inflammatory response. Second, the regulation of G-CSF and its receptor was measured following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and the expression levels we investigated for redox sensitivity by administering the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). LPS stimulation of C2C12 myotubes resulted in increases in G-CSF, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) messenger RNA (mRNA) and an increase in G-CSF, IL-6, and MCP-1 release from C2C12 myotubes. The addition of G-CSF following LPS stimulation of C2C12 myotubes increased IL-6 mRNA and cytokine release into the media, however it did not affect MCP-1 or TNFα. Following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in humans, G-CSF levels were either marginally increased in circulation or remain unaltered in skeletal muscle. Similarly, G-CSFR levels remained unchanged in response to damaging exercise and G-CSF/G-CSFR did not change in response to NAC. Collectively, these findings suggest that G-CSF may cooperate with IL-6 and potentially promote muscle regeneration in vitro, whereas in vivo aseptic inflammation induced by exercise did not change G-CSF and G-CSFR responses. These observations suggest that different models of inflammation produce a different G-CSF response.
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle recovery following injury and increases muscle function in the context of neuromuscular disease in rodent models. However, understanding of the underlying mechanisms used by G-CSF to mediate these functions remains poor. G-CSF acts on responsive cells through binding to a specific membrane spanning receptor, G-CSFR. Recently identified, the G-CSFR is expressed in myoblasts, myotubes and mature skeletal muscle tissue. Therefore, elucidating the actions of G-CSF in skeletal muscle represents an important prerequisite to consider G-CSF as a therapeutic agent to treat skeletal muscle. Here we show for the first time that treatment with moderate doses (4 and 40ng/ml) of G-CSF attenuates the effects of dexamethasone in reducing protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. However, a higher dose (100ng/ml) of G-CSF exacerbates the dexamethasone-induced reduction in protein synthesis. In contrast, G-CSF had no effect on basal or dexamethasone-induced protein degradation, nor did G-CSF influence the phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3, Erk1/2, Src, Lyn and Erk5 in C2C12 myotubes. In conclusion, physiologically relevant doses of G-CSF may attenuate reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis during catabolic conditions, thereby improving recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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