G-CSF does not influence C2C12 myogenesis despite receptor expression in healthy and dystrophic skeletal muscle

Frontiers in Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2014; 5:170. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00170
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases recovery of rodent skeletal muscles after injury, and increases muscle function in rodent models of neuromuscular disease. However, the mechanisms by which G-CSF mediates these effects are poorly understood. G-CSF acts by binding to the membrane spanning G-CSFR and activating multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Expression of the G-CSFR within the haematopoietic system is well known, but more recently it has been demonstrated to be expressed in other tissues. However, comprehensive characterization of G-CSFR expression in healthy and diseased skeletal muscle, imperative before implementing G-CSF as a therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle conditions, has been lacking. Here we show that the G-CSFR is expressed in proliferating C2C12 myoblasts, differentiated C2C12 myotubes, human primary skeletal muscle cell cultures and in mouse and human skeletal muscle. In mdx mice, a model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), G-CSF mRNA and protein was down-regulated in limb and diaphragm muscle, but circulating G-CSF ligand levels were elevated. G-CSFR mRNA in the muscles of mdx mice was up-regulated however steady-state levels of the protein were down-regulated. We show that G-CSF does not influence C2C12 myoblast proliferation, differentiation or phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3, and Erk1/2. Media change alone was sufficient to elicit increases in Akt, STAT3, and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in C2C12 muscle cells and suggest previous observations showing a G-CSF increase in phosphoprotein signaling be viewed with caution. These results suggest that the actions of G-CSF may require the interaction with other cytokines and growth factors in vivo, however these data provides preliminary evidence supporting the investigation of G-CSF for the management of muscular dystrophy.

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Available from: Paul A Della Gatta, Jul 15, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle recovery following injury and increases muscle function in the context of neuromuscular disease in rodent models. However, understanding of the underlying mechanisms used by G-CSF to mediate these functions remains poor. G-CSF acts on responsive cells through binding to a specific membrane spanning receptor, G-CSFR. Recently identified, the G-CSFR is expressed in myoblasts, myotubes and mature skeletal muscle tissue. Therefore, elucidating the actions of G-CSF in skeletal muscle represents an important prerequisite to consider G-CSF as a therapeutic agent to treat skeletal muscle. Here we show for the first time that treatment with moderate doses (4 and 40ng/ml) of G-CSF attenuates the effects of dexamethasone in reducing protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. However, a higher dose (100ng/ml) of G-CSF exacerbates the dexamethasone-induced reduction in protein synthesis. In contrast, G-CSF had no effect on basal or dexamethasone-induced protein degradation, nor did G-CSF influence the phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3, Erk1/2, Src, Lyn and Erk5 in C2C12 myotubes. In conclusion, physiologically relevant doses of G-CSF may attenuate reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis during catabolic conditions, thereby improving recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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