Liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma: current best practice
ABSTRACT Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare tumour with dismal prognosis. Only radical resection offers a chance for cure with reported survivals ranging from 25 to 45% at 5 years. Considering the low rate of resectability and lack of efficacy of other treatments, liver transplantation has emerged as a reasonable approach to cure selective patients with unresectable diseases. The use of liver transplantation, however, is associated with the inherent risk of early tumour recurrence due to the need for immunosuppression and the poor survival rate. This review will focus on the role of liver transplantation in treating patients with cholangiocellular cancer.
The indication of liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma has evolved over time moving from an absolute to a relative contraindication until eventually becoming the best indication for a small group of patients presenting with unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, when associated with a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In contrast, the indication of liver transplantation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is far from being established and should be offered only under protocol, mainly for small tumours in the setting of cirrhosis.
The poor outcome of cholangiocarcinoma, irrespective of the therapy, justifies the search for novel approaches. Only selective patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma subjected to a neoadjuvant protocol may qualify for liver transplantation.
Article: MRI of cholangiocarcinoma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary tumors after hepatocellular carcinomas. They can be categorized either based on their location (intrahepatic/perihilar/extrahepatic distal) or their growth characteristics (mass-forming/periductal-infiltrating/intraductal) because they exhibit varied presentations and outcomes based on their location and or pattern of growth. The increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma in PSC necessitates close surveillance of these patients by means of imaging and laboratory measures; and because currently surgical resection is the only effective treatment for cholangiocarcinoma, the need for accurate pre-operative staging and assessment of resectability has emphasized the role of high quality imaging in management. Today magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for detection, pre-operative staging and surveillance of cholangiocarcinoma. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24810 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bile was recently studied and appeared promising for diagnosis of malignancy. Noninvasive diagnosis of malignant biliary strictures by using VOCs in urine has not been studied. To identify potential VOCs in urine to diagnose malignant biliary strictures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, urine was obtained immediately prior to ERCP from consecutive patients with biliary strictures. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry was used to analyze the concentration of VOCs in urine samples. Fifty-four patients with biliary strictures were enrolled. Fifteen patients had malignant stricture [six cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and nine pancreatic cancer], and 39 patients had benign strictures [10 primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and 29 with benign biliary conditions including chronic pancreatitis and papillary stenosis]. The concentration of several compounds (ethanol and 2-propanol) was significantly different in patients with malignant compared with benign biliary strictures (p < 0.05). Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we developed a model for the diagnosis of malignant biliary strictures adjusted for age and gender based on VOC levels of 2-propranol, carbon disulfide, and trimethyl amine (TMA). The model [-2.4191 * log(2-propanol) + 1.1617 * log(TMA) - 1.2172 * log(carbon disulfide)] ≥ 7.73 identified the patients with malignant biliary stricture [area under the curve (AUC = 0.83)], with 93.3 % sensitivity and 61.5 % specificity (p = 0.009). Comparing patients with CCA and PSC, the model [38.864 * log(ethane) - 3.989 * log(1-octene)] ≤ 169.9 could identify CCA with 80 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity (AUC = 0.9). Measurement of VOCs in urine may diagnose malignant biliary strictures noninvasively.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 02/2015; 148(4). DOI:10.1007/s10620-015-3596-x · 2.55 Impact Factor