Prevention and Control of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).


This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations; it is intended for use by clinicians, public health officials, vaccination providers, and immunization program personnel as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with a licensed conjugate Hib vaccine for infants aged 2 through 6 months (2 or 3 doses, depending on vaccine product) with a booster dose at age 12 through 15 months. ACIP also recommends vaccination for certain persons at increased risk for Hib disease (i.e., persons who have early component complement deficiencies, immunoglobulin deficiency, anatomic or functional asplenia, or HIV infection; recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant; and recipients of chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms). This report summarizes current information on Hib epidemiology in the United States and describes Hib vaccines licensed for use in the United States. Guidelines for antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis of contacts of persons with Hib disease also are provided.

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    • "Similar to the pneumococcal vaccine, use of the Hib vaccine is only advised in the rare event of an asplenic athlete. One dose of Hib vaccine should then be administered [118]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.
    Sports Medicine 07/2014; 44(10). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0217-3 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organ transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure to an accepted treatment for otherwise irreversible or congenital disorders. The immunosuppression necessary to prevent rejection enhances the severity of many infectious diseases and may potentially attenuate the response to vaccines designed to prevent disease. In spite of the frequency and severity of infectious diseases in organ transplant recipients, many children are not fully vaccinated before transplantation. The safety and efficacy of many of the currently available vaccines for solid organ transplant recipients have not been evaluated. We review the currently available data on immunization safety and efficacy, discuss experimental vaccines, and outline strategies to avoid vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric organ transplant recipients.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2000; 30(6):857-69. DOI:10.1086/313823 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited data are available about the impact of antimicrobial resistance on clinical outcomes in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. This was studied in 146 persons hospitalized with invasive pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration of cefotaxime, ⩾.25 μg/mL) who were identified through population-based active surveillance for the period of November 1994 through April 1996. Compared with matched control subjects who had infection with more-susceptible S. pneumoniae, the proportion of subjects who died or who were admitted to an intensive care unit did not differ significantly. Multivariable analysis showed no significant contribution of antimicrobial resistance to mortality or the requirement for care in an intensive care unit. The ability to detect an effect of antimicrobial resistance on these important outcome measures may have been influenced by aggressive multidrug empirical therapy in this group of hospitalized patients. Factors other than resistance, such as severity of illness at presentation and advance directive status (“do not resuscitate” orders), appear to have a stronger influence on pneumococcal pneumonia outcomes.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2001; 33(6):797-805. DOI:10.1086/322623 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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