This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations; it is intended for use by clinicians, public health officials, vaccination providers, and immunization program personnel as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with a licensed conjugate Hib vaccine for infants aged 2 through 6 months (2 or 3 doses, depending on vaccine product) with a booster dose at age 12 through 15 months. ACIP also recommends vaccination for certain persons at increased risk for Hib disease (i.e., persons who have early component complement deficiencies, immunoglobulin deficiency, anatomic or functional asplenia, or HIV infection; recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant; and recipients of chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms). This report summarizes current information on Hib epidemiology in the United States and describes Hib vaccines licensed for use in the United States. Guidelines for antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis of contacts of persons with Hib disease also are provided.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.
Sports Medicine 07/2014; 44(10). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0217-3 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplant candidates and recipients are at increased risk for infections, many of which are preventable by immunization. Patients who are waiting for transplant or post-transplant patients, as well as their household members and healthcare workers have completed the recommended vaccinations before transplantation. Live attenuated vaccines including varicella and MMR are generally not recommended after transplantation, thus protective level of antibodies should be detected before transplantation. Currently, pneumococcal vaccine and zoster vaccines are in clinical trial among post-transplant patients. In this article, we reviewed the guidelines for vaccination in solid organ transplant candidates and recipients and summarize the available literature on the efficacy and safety of vaccines for patients who are scheduled for or who have undergone organ transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The household has traditionally been the site for studying acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Most studies were conducted many years ago, and more broadly sensitive laboratory methods to determine ARI etiology are now available.
We recruited and followed households with children over 3 annual surveillance periods and collected respiratory tract specimens from subjects with reported ARI. Virus etiology was determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis.
Individuals in larger households (defined as households with >4 members) and those in households with children aged <5 years had significantly higher ARI frequencies than others. ARI frequency generally declined with increasing age. Virus etiology was most likely to be determined in young children, who were also most likely to have virus coinfection. Overall, 16% of ARIs with 1 virus identified had ≥1 coinfecting virus. Rhinoviruses and coronaviruses were the most frequently identified agents of ARI in all age categories. Influenza virus and adenovirus were less frequently identified but were most likely to cause ARI that required medical attention.
Longitudinal studies in families remain a valuable way to study respiratory infections. RT-PCR has increased the sensitivity of virus detection, including coinfecting viruses, and expanded our ability to detect viruses now known to cause ARI.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 210(11). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu327 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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