Estimating daily energy expenditure in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 02/2014; 99(4). DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.113.069997
Source: PubMed


Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience progressive limb weakness, muscle atrophy, and dysphagia, making them vulnerable to insufficient energy intake. Methods to estimate energy requirements have not been devised for this patient group.
The goal was to develop equations to estimate energy requirements of ALS patients.
We enrolled 80 ALS participants at varying stages of their illness and studied them every 16 wk over 48 wk. At each time, we determined total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in the home setting over a 10-d period by using the doubly labeled water method. We then developed statistical models to estimate TDEE by using factors easily obtained during a routine clinical visit.
The most practical TDEE models used the Harris-Benedict, Mifflin-St Jeor, or Owen equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) and 6 questions from the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) that relate to physical activity. We developed a Web-based calculator to facilitate its use. In the research setting, measuring body composition with bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy enabled the estimation of RMR with the Rosenbaum equation and the same 6 questions from the ALSFRS-R to estimate TDEE. By using these models, the estimate of TDEE for nutritional maintenance was ±500 kcal/d across the spectrum of ALS progression.
Our results emphasize the importance of physical function and body composition in estimating TDEE. Our predictive equations can serve as a basis for recommending placement of a feeding gastrostomy in ALS patients who fail to meet their energy requirements by oral intake. This trial was registered at as NCT00116558.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been shown to be associated with mortality. However, there have not been, to our knowledge, any studies on the association between nutritional status and disease severity. The present study investigated the hypothesis that nutritional status was negatively associated with disease severity using the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R). Methods: One hundred ninety-three Korean ALS patients were divided into tertiles based on their ALSFRS-R score. Dietary intake was measured using 24 h recall and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI) and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). Results: BMI and GNRI were significantly lower in patients in the lowest tertile of ALSFRS-R. BMI and GNRI also correlated with ALSFRS-R score, bulbar score, albumin levels, total lymphocyte count, and total daily energy expenditure. Intakes of energy and most nutrients were significantly lower in patients in the lowest tertiles of ALSFRS-R, but significances disappeared after adjusting for energy intake. Intakes of vegetables, grains, seasonings, and oils were also significantly lower in patients in the lowest tertile of ALSFRS-R. In addition, patients in the lowest tertile of ALSFRS-R were significantly younger at disease onset, had a longer duration of ALS, less regular exercise, and less sun exposure. Conclusion: Nutritional status, as assessed by BMI and GNRI, was negatively associated with disease severity using ALSFRS-R. The present study suggested that intake of nutrients decreases with disease progression in ALS patients.
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    ABSTRACT: It was recently postulated that a nutritional intervention aiming at achieving weight gain might increase survival in ALS patients. This article discusses the effect of nutritional status and weight gain on survival, respiratory status and physical function. Based on the available literature, it remains unknown whether weight gain during the progression of the disease improves survival whatever the baseline body weight is. A high body mass index may impair respiratory muscle function and passive mobilization of paretic patients. Future research should evaluate the effect of changes in weight and body composition on clinical outcome while taking into account respiratory muscle strength and physical function.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gastrostomy feeding is commonly used to support patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who develop severe dysphagia. Although recommended by both the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies, currently little evidence indicates the optimum method and timing for gastrostomy insertion. We aimed to compare gastrostomy insertion approaches in terms of safety and clinical outcomes. Methods: In this large, longitudinal, prospective cohort study (ProGas), we enrolled patients with a diagnosis of definite, probable, laboratory supported, or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who had agreed with their treating clinicians to undergo gastrostomy at 24 motor neuron disease care centres or clinics in the UK. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality after gastrostomy. This study was registered on the UK Clinical Research Network database, identification number 9923. Findings: Between Nov 2, 2010, and Jan 31, 2014, 345 patients were recruited of whom 330 had gastrostomy. 163 (49%) patients underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, 121 (37%) underwent radiologically inserted gastrostomy, 43 (13%) underwent per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, and three (1%) underwent surgical gastrostomy. 12 patients (4%, 95% CI 2·1-6·2) died within the first 30 days after gastrostomy: five (3%) of 163 after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, four (3%) of 121 after radiologically inserted gastrostomy, and three (7%) of 43 after per-oral image-guided gastrostomy (p=0·46). Including repeat attempts in 14 patients, 21 (6%) of 344 gastrostomy procedures could not be completed: 11 (6%) of 171 percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies, seven (6%) of 121 radiologically inserted gastrostomies, and three (6%) of 45 per-oral image-guided gastrostomies (p=0·947). Interpretation: The three methods of gastrostomy seemed to be as safe as each other in relation to survival and procedural complications. In the absence of data from randomised trials, our findings could inform clinicians and patients in reaching decisions about gastrostomy and will stimulate further research into the nutritional management in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Funding: Motor Neurone Disease Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (MNDA) and the Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN). © 2015 ProGas Study Group. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.
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