Developmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Tracheostomies
ABSTRACT To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm (<30 weeks) infants who underwent tracheostomy.
Retrospective cohort study from 16 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network over 10 years (2001-2011). Infants who survived to at least 36 weeks (N = 8683), including 304 infants with tracheostomies, were studied. Primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI; a composite of ≥1 of developmental delay, neurologic impairment, profound hearing loss, severe visual impairment) at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Outcomes were compared using multiple logistic regression. We assessed the impact of timing by comparing outcomes of infants who underwent tracheostomy before and after 120 days of life.
Tracheostomies were associated with all neonatal morbidities examined and with most adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Death or NDI occurred in 83% of infants with tracheostomies and 40% of those without (OR adjusted for center 7.0, 95% CI 5.2-9.5). After adjustment for potential confounders, odds of death or NDI remained higher (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.6), but odds of death alone were lower (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.7) among infants with tracheostomies. Death or NDI was lower in infants who received their tracheostomies before, rather than after, 120 days of life (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9).
Tracheostomy in preterm infants is associated with adverse developmental outcomes and cannot mitigate the significant risk associated with many complications of prematurity. These data may inform counseling about tracheostomy in this vulnerable population.
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ABSTRACT: To review the reported neurodevelopmental outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors, identify important predictors of developmental disabilities, and describe the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to adverse outcome. A Medline search was performed for English-language articles cross-referencing CDH with pertinent search terms. Retrospective, prospective, and longitudinal follow-up studies were examined. The reference lists of identified articles were also searched. Neurodevelopmental dysfunction has been recognized as one of most common and potentially most disabling outcome of CDH. Intelligence appears to be in the low normal to mildly delayed range. Neuromotor dysfunction is common during early childhood. Behavioral problems, hearing impairment, and quality of life related issues are frequently encountered in older children and adolescence. Disease severity correlates with the degree of neurological dysfunction. Neurodevelopmental follow-up in CDH children should become standard of care to identify those who would benefit from early intervention services and improve neurological outcomes.08/2014; 3(3):30-6. DOI:10.5409/wjcp.v3.i3.30
The Journal of pediatrics 06/2014; 164(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.01.041 · 4.02 Impact Factor