Differences in treatment effect among clinical subgroups in a randomized clinical trial of long-acting injectable risperidone and oral antipsychotics in unstable chronic schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT A long-term randomized trial of unstable patients with schizophrenia found no benefit of long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone over oral treatment in preventing or delaying time to psychiatric hospitalizations or on clinical outcomes. The initial analyses did not examine whether benefits of LAI emerged in selected subgroups.Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been hospitalized within the past 2 years or judged to be at risk for hospitalization because of increasing psychiatric service use were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone 12.5 to 50 mg per injection biweekly or to the psychiatrist's choice of oral antipsychotics and followed for up to 2 years. The primary endpoint was psychiatric rehospitalization. Symptoms, quality of life, and global functioning were assessed through blinded videoconference interviews. Cox's regression and mixed effects models were used to assess difference in treatment effect within 12 subgroups defined by hospitalization at study entry, substance abuse, race, symptom severity, quality of life, body mass index, age, race or sex, or reported medication compliance.Mixed models and Cox's regression using up to 24 months of follow-up data showed no significant differences in treatment effect in 10 of 12 subgroups on psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, or time to hospitalization. With adjustment for multiple comparisons, treatment effect differed by race on substance use outcomes, with white participants showing more benefit from LAI than other groups.LAI risperidone showed no superiority to psychiatrist's choice of oral treatment in most clinically defined subgroups, although the white patients benefited more than the other groups on substance abuse outcomes.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.comWorld psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) 10/2013; 12(3):227-229. DOI:10.1002/wps.20062 · 12.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400), an extended-release injectable suspension of aripiprazole, in obese and nonobese patients. This post hoc analysis of a 38-week randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority study (NCT00706654) compared the clinical profile of AOM 400 in obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)) and nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) patients with schizophrenia for ≥3 years. Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to AOM 400, oral aripiprazole 10-30 mg/d, or aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg (AOM 50 mg) (subtherapeutic dose). Within obese and nonobese patient subgroups, treatment-group differences in Kaplan-Meier estimated relapse rates at week 26 (z-test) and in observed rates of impending relapse through week 38 (chi-square test) were analyzed. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (>10% in any treatment group) were summarized. At baseline of the randomized phase, obesity rates were similar among patients randomized to AOM 400 (n=95/265, 36%), oral aripiprazole (n=95/266, 36%), and AOM 50 mg (n=43/131, 33%). In both obese and nonobese patients, relapse rates through week 38 for patients randomized to AOM 400 (obese, 7.4%; nonobese, 8.8%) were similar to those in patients on oral aripiprazole (obese, 8.4%; nonobese, 7.6%), whereas relapse rates were significantly lower with AOM 400 versus AOM 50 mg (obese, 27.9% [P=0.0012]; nonobese, 19.3% [P=0.0153]). The most common TEAEs with AOM 400 in obese and nonobese patients were insomnia (12.6% and 11.2%), headache (12.6% and 8.2%), injection site pain (11.6% and 5.3%), akathisia (10.5% and 10.6%), upper respiratory tract infection (10.5% and 4.7%), weight increase (10.5% and 8.2%), and weight decrease (6.3% and 11.8%). Within the AOM 400 group, 7.6% of patients who were nonobese at baseline became obese, and 17.9% of obese patients became nonobese during randomized treatment. The clinical profile of AOM 400 was similar in obese and nonobese patients.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 05/2015; 11:1299. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S80479 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations which are clinically and scientifically relevant. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating patients with schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines a systematic review, as well as a data extraction from national guidelines have been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and subsequently categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5). This third part of the updated guidelines covers the management of the following specific treatment circumstances: comorbid depression, suicidality, various comorbid substance use disorders (legal and illegal drugs), and pregnancy and lactation. These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of patients with schizophrenia.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 04/2015; 16(3):142-70. DOI:10.3109/15622975.2015.1009163 · 4.23 Impact Factor