Article

Kidney Disease and Related Findings in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study

Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 01/2014; 37(1):24-30. DOI: 10.2337/dc13-2113
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE
Kidney disease manifests clinically as elevated albumin excretion rate (AER), impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or both, and is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study tested whether intensive diabetes therapy (INT) aimed at lowering glucose concentrations as close as safely possible to the normal range reduces the risks of kidney disease and other diabetes complications.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In the DCCT, 1,441 participants with T1D were randomly assigned to INT or conventional diabetes therapy (CON) for a mean duration of 6.5 years. Subsequently, participants have been followed for 18 years in the ongoing observational EDIC. Standardized longitudinal measurements of AER, estimated GFR, and blood pressure were made throughout the DCCT/EDIC.RESULTSDuring the DCCT, INT reduced the risks of incident microalbuminuria (AER 40 mg/24 h) and macroalbuminuria (AER 300 mg/24 h) by 39% (95% CI 21-52%) and 54% (29-74%), respectively. During EDIC years 1-8, participants previously assigned to DCCT INT continued to experience lower rates of incident microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, with risk reductions of 59% (39-73%) and 84% (67-92%), respectively. Beneficial effects of INT on the development of impaired GFR (sustained estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and hypertension became evident during combined DCCT/EDIC follow-up, with risk reductions of 50% (18-69%) and 20% (6-21%), respectively, compared with CON.CONCLUSIONS
In the DCCT/EDIC, INT resulted in clinically important, durable reductions in the risks of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, impaired GFR, and hypertension.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study continues to address knowledge gaps in our understanding of type 1 diabetes and the effects of intensive therapy on its long-term complications.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS During the DCCT (1982-1993), a controlled clinical trial of 1,441 subjects with type 1 diabetes, and the EDIC (1994-present), an observational study of the DCCT cohort, core data collection has included medical history questionnaires, surveillance health exams, and frequent laboratory and other evaluations for microvascular and macrovascular disease. Numerous collaborations have expanded the outcome data with more detailed investigations of cardiovascular disease, cognitive function, neuropathy, genetics, and potential biological pathways involved in the development of complications.RESULTSThe longitudinal follow-up of the DCCT/EDIC cohort provides the opportunity to continue monitoring the durability of intensive treatment as well as to address lingering questions in type 1 diabetes research. Future planned analyses will address the onset and progression of microvascular triopathy, evidence-based screening for retinopathy and nephropathy, effects of glycemic variability and nonglycemic risk factors on outcomes, long-term impact of intensive therapy on cognitive decline, and health economics. Three new proposed investigations include an examination of residual C-peptide secretion and its impact, prevalence of hearing impairment, and evaluation of gastrointestinal dysfunction.CONCLUSIONS With the comprehensive data collection and the remarkable participant retention over 30 years, the DCCT/EDIC continues as an irreplaceable resource for understanding type 1 diabetes and its long-term complications.
    Diabetes care 01/2014; 37(1):44-9. DOI:10.2337/dc13-2148 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was designed to test the glucose hypothesis and determine whether the complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) could be prevented or delayed. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) observational follow-up determined the durability of the DCCT effects on the more-advanced stages of diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The DCCT (1982-1993) was a controlled clinical trial in 1,441 subjects with T1DM comparing intensive therapy (INT), aimed at achieving levels of glycemia as close to the nondiabetic range as safely possible, with conventional therapy (CON), which aimed to maintain safe asymptomatic glucose control. INT utilized three or more daily insulin injections or insulin pump therapy guided by self-monitored glucose. EDIC (1994-present) is an observational study of the DCCT cohort.RESULTSThe DCCT followed >99% of the cohort for a mean of 6.5 years and demonstrated a 35-76% reduction in the early stages of microvascular disease with INT, with a median HbA(1c) of 7%, compared with CONV, with a median HbA1c of 9%. The major adverse effect of INT was a threefold increased risk of hypoglycemia, which was not associated with a decline in cognitive function or quality of life. EDIC showed a durable effect of initial assigned therapies despite a loss of the glycemic separation (metabolic memory) and demonstrated that the reduction in early-stage complications during the DCCT translated into substantial reductions in severe complications and CVD.CONCLUSIONSDCCT/EDIC has demonstrated the effectiveness of INT in reducing the long-term complications of T1DM and improving the prospects for a healthy life span.
    Diabetes care 01/2014; 37(1):9-16. DOI:10.2337/dc13-2112 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intensive diabetes treatment reduces the risk of developing albuminuria in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Effects on the long-term clinical course of kidney disease remain to be defined. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of intensive versus conventional treatment on incident albuminuria. Methods For this long-term follow-up study of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) we assessed the effect of intensive diabetes treatment on albuminuria during 18 years after the completion of the trial. During the DCCT (1983–1993), 1441 participants with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned to receive either intensive treatment (with the goal of achieving levels of glycaemia as close to the non-diabetic range as safely possible) or conventional treatment (aimed at prevention of symptoms of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia). At the end of the DCCT, all participants were instructed in intensive treatment, and all participants were invited to join the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. Mean HbA1c during the EDIC study was similar in the two groups of patients who differed in their treatment assignment during the DCCT. Albumin excretion rate was measured every other year during the EDIC study. Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin excretion rate of 30 mg per 24 h or higher on two consecutive study visits and macroalbuminuria as an albumin excretion rate of 300 mg per day or higher. We estimated glomerular filtration rate from annual serum creatinine measurements throughout DCCT and the EDIC study. The DCCT is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00360815, and the EDIC study, with number NCT00360893. Findings During years 1–18 of EDIC, we noted 191 new cases of microalbuminuria (71 in the group receiving intensive treatment during DCCT and 120 in the group receiving conventional treatment during DCCT; risk reduction 45%, 95% CI 26–59) and 117 new cases of macroalbuminuria (31 intensive, 86 conventional; 61%, 41–74). At year 17–18 of EDIC, the prevalence of albumin excretion rate of 30 mg per 24 h or higher was 18·4% in participants assigned to intensive treatment during the DCCT, compared with 24·9% in participants assigned to conventional treatment (p=0·02). During years 1–18 of EDIC, we recorded 84 cases of sustained estimated glomerular filtration rate lower than 60 mL/min per 1·73m2 (31 intensive, 53 conventional; risk reduction 44%, 95% CI 12–64). Interpretation In individuals with type 1 diabetes, intensive diabetes treatment yields durable renal benefits that persist for at least 18 years after its application. Ultimately, such benefits should result in fewer patients requiring renal replacement therapy. Funding National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease.
    The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 10/2014; 2. DOI:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70155-X · 9.19 Impact Factor
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