The MOM Program: Home Visiting in Partnership With Pediatric Care
ABSTRACT Home visiting programs aim to improve child health, reduce developmental risks, and enhance use of community resources. How these programs can work in collaboration with pediatric practice has been understudied. The MOM Program was a randomized controlled trial of an innovative home visiting program to serve urban, low-income children. Program aims included promoting child health through regular pediatric visits and enhancing school readiness through developmental screenings and referrals to early intervention. The objective of this report was to describe the partnership with the pediatric community and selected program results.
A total of 302 mothers were enrolled in the program at the time of children's birth. Eligible infants were full-term, without identified neurologic/genetic disorder or ICU intervention, and from high-poverty zip codes. A total of 152 were randomized to the home visiting program, with 9 visits over 3 years, scheduled before well-child visits; 150 were randomized to the control condition with no home visits. Medical records and case notes provided information on pediatric appointments kept and program outcomes.
Eighty-nine percent of both groups were retained throughout the 3-year program; 86% of the home-visited group received at least 7 of the 9 planned home visits. Home-visited mothers were >10 times as likely to keep pediatric appointments, compared with those not visited. Barriers to service access were varied, and theory-driven approaches were taken to address these.
Home visiting programs can provide important partnerships with pediatric health care providers. Integrating home visiting services with pediatric care can enhance child health, and this subject warrants expansion.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The Affordable Care Act provides funding for home-visiting programs to reduce health care disparities, despite limited evidence that existing programs can overcome implementation and evaluation challenges with at-risk populations. The authors report 36-month outcomes of the paraprofessional-delivered Family Spirit home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children. Method: Expectant American Indian teens (N=322, mean age=18.1 years) from four southwestern reservation communities were randomly assigned to the Family Spirit intervention plus optimized standard care or optimized standard care alone. Maternal and child outcomes were evaluated at 28 and 36 weeks gestation and 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postpartum. Results: At baseline the mothers had high rates of substance use (>84%), depressive symptoms (>32%), dropping out of school (>57%), and residential instability (51%). Study retention was ≥83%. From pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, mothers in the intervention group had significantly greater parenting knowledge (effect size=0.42) and parental locus of control (effect size=0.17), fewer depressive symptoms (effect size=0.16) and externalizing problems (effect size=0.14), and lower past month use of marijuana (odds ratio=0.65) and illegal drugs (odds ratio=0.67). Children in the intervention group had fewer externalizing (effect size=0.23), internalizing (effect size=0.23), and dysregulation (effect size=0.27) problems. Conclusions: The paraprofessional home-visiting intervention promoted effective parenting, reduced maternal risks, and improved child developmental outcomes in the U.S. population subgroup with the fewest resources and highest behavioral health disparities. The methods and results can inform federal efforts to disseminate and sustain evidence-based home-visiting interventions in at-risk populations.American Journal of Psychiatry 10/2014; 172(2). DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14030332 · 12.30 Impact Factor