The MOM Program: Home Visiting in Partnership With Pediatric Care
ABSTRACT Home visiting programs aim to improve child health, reduce developmental risks, and enhance use of community resources. How these programs can work in collaboration with pediatric practice has been understudied. The MOM Program was a randomized controlled trial of an innovative home visiting program to serve urban, low-income children. Program aims included promoting child health through regular pediatric visits and enhancing school readiness through developmental screenings and referrals to early intervention. The objective of this report was to describe the partnership with the pediatric community and selected program results.
A total of 302 mothers were enrolled in the program at the time of children's birth. Eligible infants were full-term, without identified neurologic/genetic disorder or ICU intervention, and from high-poverty zip codes. A total of 152 were randomized to the home visiting program, with 9 visits over 3 years, scheduled before well-child visits; 150 were randomized to the control condition with no home visits. Medical records and case notes provided information on pediatric appointments kept and program outcomes.
Eighty-nine percent of both groups were retained throughout the 3-year program; 86% of the home-visited group received at least 7 of the 9 planned home visits. Home-visited mothers were >10 times as likely to keep pediatric appointments, compared with those not visited. Barriers to service access were varied, and theory-driven approaches were taken to address these.
Home visiting programs can provide important partnerships with pediatric health care providers. Integrating home visiting services with pediatric care can enhance child health, and this subject warrants expansion.
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ABSTRACT: Adolescent mothers are at risk for rapidly becoming pregnant again and for depression, school dropout, and poor parenting. We evaluated the impact of a community-based home-visiting program on these outcomes and on linking the adolescents with primary care. Pregnant adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, predominantly with low incomes and of African American race, were recruited from urban prenatal care sites and randomly assigned to home visiting or usual care. Trained home visitors, recruited from local communities, were paired with each adolescent and provided services through the child's second birthday. They delivered a parenting curriculum, encouraged contraceptive use, connected the teen with primary care, and promoted school continuation. Research assistants collected data via structured interviews at baseline and at 1 and 2 years of follow-up using validated instruments to measure parenting (Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression). School status and repeat pregnancy were self-reported. We measured program impact over time with intention-to-treat analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Of 122 eligible pregnant adolescents, 84 consented, completed baseline assessments, and were randomized to a home-visited group (n = 44) or a control group (n = 40). Eighty-three percent completed year 1 or year 2 follow-up assessments, or both. With GEE, controlling for baseline differences, follow-up parenting scores for home-visited teens were 5.5 points higher than those for control teens (95% confidence interval, 0.5-10.4 points; P = .03) and their adjusted odds of school continuation were 3.5 times greater (95% confidence interval, 1.1-11.8; P <.05). The program did not have any impact on repeat pregnancy, depression, or linkage with primary care. This community-based home-visiting program improved adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes and school continuation, but it did not reduce their odds of repeat pregnancy or depression or achieve coordination with primary care. Coordinated care may require explicit mechanisms to promote communication between the community program and primary care.The Annals of Family Medicine 05/2007; 5(3):224-32. DOI:10.1370/afm.629 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes the Resources, Education and Care in the Home program (REACH-Futures), an infant mortality reduction initiative in the inner city of Chicago built on the World Health Organization (WHO) primary health care model and over a decade of experience administering programs to reduce infant mortality through home visits. The program uses a nurse-managed team, which includes community residents selected, trained, and integrated as health advocates. Service participants were predominately African American families. All participants were low-income and resided in inner-city neighborhoods with high unemployment, high teen birth rates, violent crime, and deteriorated neighborhoods. Outcomes for the first 666 participants are compared to a previous home-visiting program that used only nurses. Participant retention rates were equivalent overall and significantly higher in the first months of the REACH-Futures program. There were two infant deaths during the course of the study, a lower death rate than the previous program or the city. Infant health problems and developmental levels were equivalent to the prior program and significantly more infants were fully immunized at 12 months. The authors conclude that the use of community workers as a part of the home-visiting team is as effective as the nurse-only team in meeting the needs of families at high risk of poor infant outcomes. This approach is of national interest because of its potential to achieve the desired outcomes in a cost-effective manner.Public Health Nursing 07/2001; 18(4):225-35. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1446.2001.00225.x · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Early postpartum home visiting is universal in many Western countries. Studies from developing countries on the effects of home visits are rare. In Syria, where the postpartum period is rather ignored, this study aimed to assess whether a community-based intervention of postnatal home visits has an effect on maternal postpartum morbidities; infant morbidity; uptake of postpartum care; use of contraceptive methods; and on selected neonatal health practices. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in Damascus. Three groups of new mothers were randomly allocated to receive either 4 postnatal home visits (A), one visit (B), or no visit (C). A total of 876 women were allocated and followed up. Registered midwives with special training made a one or a series of home visits providing information, educating, and supporting women. A significantly higher proportion of mothers in Groups A and B reported exclusively breastfeeding their infants (28.5% and 30%, respectively) as compared with Group C (20%), who received no visits. There were no reported differences between groups in other outcomes. While postpartum home visits significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding, other outcomes did not change. Further studies framed in a nonbiomedical context are needed. Other innovative approaches to improve postnatal care in Syria are needed.Public Health Nursing 03/2008; 25(2):115-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1446.2008.00688.x · 0.89 Impact Factor