Mental health surveillance among children—United States, 2005–2011
ABSTRACT Mental disorders among children are described as "serious deviations from expected cognitive, social, and emotional development" (US Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health; 1999). These disorders are an important public health issue in the United States because of their prevalence, early onset, and impact on the child, family, and community, with an estimated total annual cost of $247 billion. A total of 13%-20% of children living in the United States experience a mental disorder in a given year, and surveillance during 1994-2011 has shown the prevalence of these conditions to be increasing. Suicide, which can result from the interaction of mental disorders and other factors, was the second leading cause of death among children aged 12-17 years in 2010. Surveillance efforts are critical for documenting the impact of mental disorders and for informing policy, prevention, and resource allocation. This report summarizes information about ongoing federal surveillance systems that can provide estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders and indicators of mental health among children living in the United States, presents estimates of childhood mental disorders and indicators from these systems during 2005-2011, explains limitations, and identifies gaps in information while presenting strategies to bridge those gaps.
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ABSTRACT: The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders' continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 09/2013; 10(9):4224-44. DOI:10.3390/ijerph10094224 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of prematurity (<37 weeks of gestation) and low birthweight (<2500 g) on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2-17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,677) was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (<1500 g) children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500-2499 g) children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.Depression research and treatment 11/2013; 2013:570743. DOI:10.1155/2013/570743
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ABSTRACT: Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a growing mental health concern worldwide. Effective, accessible and low-cost therapeutics for the disorder are urgently needed. Here we introduce a novel internet-based cognitive training intervention: Online Neuroplasticity-based Training for the Remediation of ADHD in Children (ONTRAC). The intervention is deployed in the home setting; it is customized to the cognitive capacities of each child and progressively improves performance in the specific neuro-cognitive domains deficient in ADHD. A feasibility trial of ONTRAC is being conducted in a resource limited clinical setting in New Delhi, India and is an exemplar of hi-tech global psychiatry.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 11/2013; 7(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-7-38