ABSTRACT These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology provide recommendations for the management of rectal cancer, beginning with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist through diagnosis, pathologic staging, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. This discussion focuses on localized disease. The NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel believes that a multidisciplinary approach, including representation from gastroenterology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, and radiology, is necessary for treating patients with rectal cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Background This study was conducted to investigate the local effects and toxicity of accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer in patients with previous pelvic irradiation.Methods Twenty-two patients with recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer who previously received pelvic irradiation were enrolled in our single-center trial between January 2007 and August 2012. Reirradiation was scheduled for up to 39 Gy in 30 fractions using intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose was delivered via a hyperfractionation schedule of 1.3 Gy twice daily. Patient follow-up was performed by clinical examination, CT/MRI, or PET/CT every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. Tumor response was evaluated 1 month after reirradiation by CT/MRI based on the RECIST criteria. Adverse events were assessed using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) common toxicity criteria (version 3.0).ResultsThe median time from the end of the initial radiation therapy to reirradiation was 30 months (range, 18-93 months). Overall local responses were observed in 9 patients (40.9%). None of the patients achieved a complete response (CR), and 9 patients (40.9%) had a partial response (PR). Thirteen patients failed to achieve a clinical response: 12 (54.5%) presented with stable disease (SD) and 1 (4.5%) with progressive disease (PD). Among all the patients who underwent reirradiation, partial or complete symptomatic relief was achieved in 6 patients (27.3%) and 13 patients (59.1%), respectively. Grade 4 acute toxicity and treatment-related deaths were not observed. The following grade 3 acute toxicities were observed: diarrhea (2 patients, 9.1%), cystitis (1 patient, 4.5%), dermatitis (1 patient, 4.5%), and intestinal obstruction (1 patient, 4.5%). Late toxicity was infrequent. Chronic severe diarrhea, small bowel obstruction, and dysuria were observed in 2 (9.1%), 1 (4.5%) and 2 (9.1%) of the patients, respectively.Conclusions This study showed that accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly relieved local symptoms and led to a promising local response with an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer and previous pelvic irradiation. Innovative treatment regimens should be evaluated in future studies to improve the clinical outcome while avoiding excessive toxicity in patients with recurrent rectal cancer and previous pelvic irradiation.Radiation Oncology 12/2014; 9(1):278. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, the accuracy rates of preneoadjuvant therapy nodal staging and potential nodal downstaging make the prognostic significance of nodal status unclear. We therefore sought to review our experience in order to better understand the impact of clinical and pathologic nodal status upon patient outcomes.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 06/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The VELOUR study demonstrated a survival benefit for FOLFIRI + aflibercept versus FOLFIRI + placebo in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who progressed on oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Continued divergence of overall survival (OS) curves in the intension to treat (ITT) population, with the survival advantage persisting beyond median survival time, suggested subpopulations might have different magnitudes of survival gain. Additionally, 10% of patients within VELOUR had recurrence during or within 6 months of completing oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy (adjuvant fast relapsers) - previously identified as having poorer survival outcomes.BMC Cancer 08/2014; 14(1):605. · 3.32 Impact Factor