Rectal Cancer.

Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN (Impact Factor: 4.24). 12/2012; 10(12):1528-1564.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology provide recommendations for the management of rectal cancer, beginning with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist through diagnosis, pathologic staging, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. This discussion focuses on localized disease. The NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel believes that a multidisciplinary approach, including representation from gastroenterology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, and radiology, is necessary for treating patients with rectal cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, the accuracy rates of preneoadjuvant therapy nodal staging and potential nodal downstaging make the prognostic significance of nodal status unclear. We therefore sought to review our experience in order to better understand the impact of clinical and pathologic nodal status upon patient outcomes. 174 patients were identified as having undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiation and resection for rectal cancer. For analytic purposes, patients were grouped into four nodal categories (uN (0)center dot pN (0), uN (0)center dot pN (+), uN (+) center dot pN (0), and uN (+) center dot pN (+)). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. 104 men and 70 women of median age 60 years (29-85 years) were followed for a median of 31 months (1-121 months). Nodal staging was available for 129 patients, with a median of 8 lymph nodes (range 0-39) evaluated. Disease recurred in 3 of 41 (7 %) uN (0) center dot pN (0), 10 of 52 (20 %) uN (+)center dot pN (0), 7 of 18 (41 %) uN (0)center dot pN (+), and 6 of 17 (35 %) uN (+)center dot pN (+) patients. Those patients having nodal downstaging (uN (+)center dot pN (0)) experienced superior overall survival (p = 0.03). Only pathologic nodal status was a significant predictor of both disease-free and overall survival in multivariate modeling. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not impact disease-free or overall survival for patients with pN0. Pathologic nodal status may represent a superior predictor of survival for patients with local advanced rectal cancers. Our findings may have potential implications for the application of adjuvant therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study was conducted to investigate the local effects and toxicity of accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer in patients with previous pelvic irradiation.Methods Twenty-two patients with recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer who previously received pelvic irradiation were enrolled in our single-center trial between January 2007 and August 2012. Reirradiation was scheduled for up to 39 Gy in 30 fractions using intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose was delivered via a hyperfractionation schedule of 1.3 Gy twice daily. Patient follow-up was performed by clinical examination, CT/MRI, or PET/CT every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. Tumor response was evaluated 1 month after reirradiation by CT/MRI based on the RECIST criteria. Adverse events were assessed using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) common toxicity criteria (version 3.0).ResultsThe median time from the end of the initial radiation therapy to reirradiation was 30 months (range, 18-93 months). Overall local responses were observed in 9 patients (40.9%). None of the patients achieved a complete response (CR), and 9 patients (40.9%) had a partial response (PR). Thirteen patients failed to achieve a clinical response: 12 (54.5%) presented with stable disease (SD) and 1 (4.5%) with progressive disease (PD). Among all the patients who underwent reirradiation, partial or complete symptomatic relief was achieved in 6 patients (27.3%) and 13 patients (59.1%), respectively. Grade 4 acute toxicity and treatment-related deaths were not observed. The following grade 3 acute toxicities were observed: diarrhea (2 patients, 9.1%), cystitis (1 patient, 4.5%), dermatitis (1 patient, 4.5%), and intestinal obstruction (1 patient, 4.5%). Late toxicity was infrequent. Chronic severe diarrhea, small bowel obstruction, and dysuria were observed in 2 (9.1%), 1 (4.5%) and 2 (9.1%) of the patients, respectively.Conclusions This study showed that accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly relieved local symptoms and led to a promising local response with an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer and previous pelvic irradiation. Innovative treatment regimens should be evaluated in future studies to improve the clinical outcome while avoiding excessive toxicity in patients with recurrent rectal cancer and previous pelvic irradiation.
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