Prolonged survival in HIV infection is accompanied by an increased frequency of non-HIV-related comorbidities. A number of age-related comorbidities occur earlier in HIV-infected patients than in individuals without HIV infection. This "accelerated aging" appears to be largely related to chronic inflammation, chronic immune activation, and immunosenescence in HIV infection. Levels of markers of inflammation and coagulopathy are elevated in HIV-infected patients, and elevations in markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, opportunistic conditions, or all-cause mortality. In both HIV infection and aging, immunosenescence is marked by an increased proportion of CD28-, CD57+ memory CD8+ T cells with reduced capacity to produce interleukin 2 (IL-2), increased production of IL-6, resistance to apoptosis, and shortened telomeres. A number of AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies are under way to examine treatment aimed at reducing chronic inflammation and immune activation in HIV infection. This article summarizes a presentation by Judith A. Aberg, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education course held in New York City in October 2011.
"Multiple studies suggest increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected versus non- HIV-infected patients   . Although traditional risk factors such as advanced age, smoking, and dyslipidemia  have contributed significantly to CVD, nontraditional risk factors such as immune dysfunction have been accused . Through a focused literature search, this review aims to shed light on the cardiovascular complications of persistent immune dysfunction in HIV patients receiving ART as a public health concern and potential preventive strategies to reduce its impact. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged survival in HIV infection is accompanied by an increased frequency of non-HIV-related comorbidities. It is suggested that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) occur earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed which can be categorized into traditional and nontraditional risk factors. Immune dysfunction is a nontraditional risk factor that contributes significantly to cardiovascular pathology. Markers of inflammation are elevated in HIV-infected patients, and elevations in markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the data currently suggest the most practical advice is to start antiretroviral therapy early and to manage traditional risk factors for CVD aggressively. A better understanding of the mechanisms of CVD in this population and further efforts to modify chronic inflammation remain an important research area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals suffer from accelerated aging, which manifests as premature cardiovascular and bone disease. However, little is known of the association of these two disorders in the HIV population. Our objective was to investigate the association between a marker of atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC]) and low bone mineral density (BMD) in a cross-sectional cohort of HIV-infected patients. The study was conducted at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy. A total of 636 consecutive middle-aged, HIV-infected subjects were recruited between January 2006 and December 2010. All patients underwent CAC and BMD assessment. Patients were categorized according to a CAC score <100 or >100 units based on previous literature that identified this cut-point as a marker of increased risk. Low femoral and lumbar spine BMD was defined as <25th percentile value for the study cohort. Logistic regression and bootstrap analysis were used to assess the independent association between CAC and BMD. The main outcome measure was a CAC score >100. Patients with CAC > 100 were older and more likely to be men, diabetic, and overweight. Patients with CAC < 100 had better renal function and a lower cardiovascular risk profile. After adjusting for age, sex, traditional and HIV-specific risk factors, vitamin D level, and PTH level, there was a significant association between CAC > 100 and low BMD for the femur (OR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.09-4.99; p = 0.02) but not for the spine. Bootstrap analyses confirmed these findings. In summary, CAC was independently associated with low femoral BMD in HIV-infected patients. Future studies should test whether therapies that attenuate cardiovascular risk in HIV favorably impact bone health.
Calcified Tissue International 08/2013; 93(5). DOI:10.1007/s00223-013-9767-x · 3.27 Impact Factor
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