Aging, inflammation, and HIV infection.
ABSTRACT Prolonged survival in HIV infection is accompanied by an increased frequency of non-HIV-related comorbidities. A number of age-related comorbidities occur earlier in HIV-infected patients than in individuals without HIV infection. This "accelerated aging" appears to be largely related to chronic inflammation, chronic immune activation, and immunosenescence in HIV infection. Levels of markers of inflammation and coagulopathy are elevated in HIV-infected patients, and elevations in markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, opportunistic conditions, or all-cause mortality. In both HIV infection and aging, immunosenescence is marked by an increased proportion of CD28-, CD57+ memory CD8+ T cells with reduced capacity to produce interleukin 2 (IL-2), increased production of IL-6, resistance to apoptosis, and shortened telomeres. A number of AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies are under way to examine treatment aimed at reducing chronic inflammation and immune activation in HIV infection. This article summarizes a presentation by Judith A. Aberg, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education course held in New York City in October 2011.
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ABSTRACT: The costimulatory molecule CD28 is essential for activation of helper T cells. Despite this critical role, it is not known whether CD28 has functions in maintaining T cell responses following activation. To determine the role for CD28 after T cell priming we generated a strain of mice where CD28 is removed from CD4(+) T cells after priming. We show that continued CD28 expression is important for effector CD4(+) T cells following infection; maintained CD28 is required for the expansion of T helper type 1 cells, and for the differentiation and maintenance of T follicular helper cells during viral infection. Persistent CD28 is also required for clearance of the bacterium Citrobacter rodentium from the gastrointestinal tract. Together, this study demonstrates that CD28 persistence is required for helper T cell polarization in response to infection, describing a novel function for CD28 that is distinct from its role in T cell priming.eLife Sciences 10/2014; 3. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios occur in conditions associated with reduced immune resilience, including older age and HIV infection. Effective antiretroviral therapy increases CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios, but often not to preinfection levels. The reasons for this deficit remain unclear. As cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection exacerbates falling CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios and immune senescence in the old elderly population, we investigated whether CMV infection is associated with refractory inversion of CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios and increased phenotypic evidence of immune senescence in HIV infection.AIDS (London, England) 09/2014; 28(14):2045-2049. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in European and North American cohorts. IDUs were excluded. Causes of death were assigned using standardized procedures. We used abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies. Life-years lost to HIV were estimated by comparison with the French background population. Among 17 995 HIV-infected individuals followed for 79 760 person-years, the proportion of smokers was 60%. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing smokers with nonsmokers was 1.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56-2.41]. The MRRs comparing current and previous smokers with never smokers were 1.70 (95% CI 1.23-2.34) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.34), respectively. Smokers had substantially higher mortality from cardiovascular disease, non-AIDS malignancies than nonsmokers [MRR 6.28 (95% CI 2.19-18.0) and 2.67 (95% CI 1.60-4.46), respectively]. Among 35-year-old HIV-infected men, the loss of life-years associated with smoking and HIV was 7.9 (95% CI 7.1-8.7) and 5.9 (95% CI 4.9-6.9), respectively. The life expectancy of virally suppressed, never-smokers was 43.5 years (95% CI 41.7-45.3), compared with 44.4 years among 35-year-old men in the background population. Excess MRRs/1000 person-years associated with smoking increased from 0.6 (95% CI -1.3 to 2.6) at age 35 to 43.6 (95% CI 37.9-49.3) at age at least 65 years. Well treated HIV-infected individuals may lose more life years through smoking than through HIV. Excess mortality associated with smoking increases markedly with age. Therefore, increases in smoking-related mortality can be expected as the treated HIV-infected population ages. Interventions for smoking cessation should be prioritized.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.AIDS (London, England) 11/2014; · 6.56 Impact Factor