Weight change in middle adulthood and breast cancer risk in the EPIC-PANACEA study.

International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 6.2). 04/2014; DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28926
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Long-term weight gain (i.e. weight gain since age 20) has been related to higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The effect of weight change in middle adulthood is unclear. We investigated the association between weight change in middle adulthood (i.e. women aged 40-50 years) and the risk of breast cancer before and after the age of 50. We included female participants of the EPIC cohort, with information on anthropometric measures at recruitment and after a median follow-up of 4.3 years. Annual weight change was categorized using quintiles taking quintile 2 and 3 as the reference category (-0.44 to 0.36 kg/y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association. 205,723 women were included and 4,663 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 7.5 years (from second weight assessment onwards). High weight gain (Q5: 0.83 to 4.98 kg/y) was related to a slightly, but significantly higher breast cancer risk (HRQ5_versus_ Q2/3 : 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). The association was more pronounced for breast cancer diagnosed before or at age 50 (HRQ5_versus_ Q2/3 : 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02-1.85). Weight loss was not associated with breast cancer risk. There was no evidence for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status. In conclusion, high weight gain in middle adulthood increases the risk of breast cancer. The association seems to be more pronounced for breast cancer diagnosed before or at age 50. Our results illustrate the importance of avoiding weight gain in middle adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined whether associations of adult weight gain with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer vary by stature, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and early adult size in a cohort of 37,105 Iowa (United States) women. Both low body mass index (kg/m2) (BMI) at age 18 and high subsequent weight-gain were associated independently with increased risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer. After stratifying on BMI at age 18, high weight gain was associated with increased risk irrespective of whether early BMI was low (relative risk [RR] = 1.92, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.45-2.53) or high (RR = 1.59, Ci = 1.19-2.12). Women with lower BMI at 18 were at a higher risk at all levels of weight change, but having low BMI at age 18 and low subsequent weight gain conferred no significantly excess risk over those with high BMI at 18 and low gain. An inconsistent increase in risk was associated with taller stature; there was no additional risk associated with high WHR. Part of the observed risk from lower early size may reflect greater weight gain by lighter women. Limiting adult weight gain thus may be a feasible method to avoid increasing an individual's risk of breast cancer. Reasons for different effects of early cf late weight gain are not established, but benefits of a greater size at age 18 are likely to be offset by increased risks of other weight-related diseases at older ages.
    Cancer Causes and Control 04/1995; 6(2):112-8. DOI:10.1007/BF00052771 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adult obesity has been associated with an increased risk of post-menopausal breast cancer, but it is unclear whether this relationship reflects a causal role of obesity during childhood and adolescence, of weight gain during adult life or of adult obesity per se. In a population-based case-control study in all of Sweden, we included 3,345 (84% of all eligible) women aged 50-74 years with invasive breast cancer, and 3,454 (82% of all selected) controls of similar age. Mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews were used to collect detailed information on anthropometric measures. Odds ratios were estimated through multiple logistic regression. Women with the leanest somatotype at age 7 had about a 3-fold higher risk of breast cancer than the most obese (P for trend 0.0009). A suggested protective effect of a high body mass at age 18 and a detrimental influence of body mass 1 year prior to data collection largely reflected the effect of weight gain after age 18, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. Among women at least 20 years post menopause, those who had gained 30 kg or more since age 18 had an odds ratio of 2.04 (95% confidence interval 1.20-3.48) of breast cancer compared with those who had maintained their weight unchanged. The effect of weight gain was unequivocal among non-users but not among users of hormone replacement therapy. Our findings have important implications, suggesting weight preservation as a means for prevention of post-menopausal breast cancer as well as a causal role of childhood body build in breast cancer etiology.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/1998; 76(1):29-34. · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two methods are given for the joint estimation of parameters in models for competing risks in survival analysis. In both cases Cox's proportional hazards regression model is fitted using a data duplication method. In principle either method can be used for any number of different failure types, assuming independent risks. Advantages of the augmented data approach are that it limits over-parametrisation and it runs immediately on existing software. The methods are used to reanalyse data from two well-known published studies, providing new insights.
    Biometrics 07/1995; 51(2):524-32. DOI:10.2307/2532940 · 1.52 Impact Factor


Available from
Jul 22, 2014