Metabolomic patterns and alcohol consumption in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
ABSTRACT Effects of alcohol consumption on health and disease are complex and involve a number of cellular and metabolic processes.
We examined the association between alcohol consumption habits and metabolomic profiles.
We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association of alcohol consumption habits measured by using a questionnaire with serum metabolites measured by using untargeted mass spectrometry in 1977 African Americans from the Jackson field center in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The whole sample was split into a discovery set (n = 1500) and a replication set (n = 477). Alcohol consumption habits were treated as an ordinal variable, with nondrinkers as the reference group and quartiles of current drinkers as ordinal groups with higher values. For each metabolite, a linear regression was conducted to estimate its relation with alcohol consumption habits separately in both sets. A modified Bonferroni procedure was used in the discovery set to adjust the significance threshold (P < 1.9 × 10(-4)).
In 356 named metabolites, 39 metabolites were significantly associated with alcohol consumption habits in both discovery and replication sets. In general, alcohol consumption was associated with higher levels of most metabolites such as those in amino acid and lipid pathways and with lower levels of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. Three pathways, 2-hydroxybutyrate-related metabolites, γ-glutamyl dipeptides, and lysophosphatidylcholines, which are considered to be involved in inflammation and oxidation, were associated with incident cardiovascular diseases.
To our knowledge, this is the largest metabolomic study thus far conducted in nonwhites. Metabolomic biomarkers of alcohol consumption were identified and replicated. The results lend new insight into potential mediating effects between alcohol consumption and future health and disease.
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ABSTRACT: The human metabolome is a measurable outcome of interactions among an individual's inherited genome, microbiome, and dietary intake. We explored the relationship between dietary intake and serum untargeted metabolomic profiles in a subsample of 1,977 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in 1987-1989. For each metabolite, we conducted linear regression to estimate its relationships with each food group and food category. Potential confounding factors included age, sex, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), energy intake, kidney function, and food groups. We used a modified Bonferroni correction to determine statistical significance. In total, 48 pairs of diet-metabolite associations were identified, including multiple novel associations. The food group "sugar-rich foods and beverages" was inversely associated with 5 metabolites in the 2-hydroxybutyrate-related subpathway and positively associated with 5 γ-glutamyl dipeptides. The hypothesized mechanism of these associations may be through oxidative stress. "Sugar-rich foods and beverages" were also inversely associated with 7 unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. These findings suggest that the contribution of a sugar-rich dietary pattern to increased cardiovascular disease risk may be partially attributed to oxidative stress and disordered lipid profiles. Metabolomics may reveal novel metabolic biomarkers of dietary intake and provide insight into biochemical pathways underlying nutritional effects on disease development.American journal of epidemiology 05/2014; 179(12). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu073 · 4.98 Impact Factor