Predicting Risk of Postoperative Lung Injury in High-Risk Surgical Patients

Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 5.88). 05/2014; 120(5):1168-81. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000216
Source: PubMed


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a serious postoperative complication. Although ARDS prevention is a priority, the inability to identify patients at risk for ARDS remains a barrier to progress. The authors tested and refined the previously reported surgical lung injury prediction (SLIP) model in a multicenter cohort of at-risk surgical patients.
This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, prospective cohort investigation evaluating high-risk patients undergoing surgery. Preoperative ARDS risk factors and risk modifiers were evaluated for inclusion in a parsimonious risk-prediction model. Multiple imputation and domain analysis were used to facilitate development of a refined model, designated SLIP-2. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model performance.
Among 1,562 at-risk patients, ARDS developed in 117 (7.5%). Nine independent predictors of ARDS were identified: sepsis, high-risk aortic vascular surgery, high-risk cardiac surgery, emergency surgery, cirrhosis, admission location other than home, increased respiratory rate (20 to 29 and ≥30 breaths/min), FIO2 greater than 35%, and SpO2 less than 95%. The original SLIP score performed poorly in this heterogeneous cohort with baseline risk factors for ARDS (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [95% CI], 0.56 [0.50 to 0.62]). In contrast, SLIP-2 score performed well (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [95% CI], 0.84 [0.81 to 0.88]). Internal validation indicated similar discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.84.
In this multicenter cohort of patients at risk for ARDS, the SLIP-2 score outperformed the original SLIP score. If validated in an independent sample, this tool may help identify surgical patients at high risk for ARDS.

49 Reads
  • Anesthesiology 05/2014; 120(5):1072-4. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000217 · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paucity of effective therapeutic interventions in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) combined with overwhelming evidence on the importance of timely implementation of effective therapies to critically ill patients has resulted in a recent shift in ARDS research. Increasingly, efforts are being directed toward early identification of patients at risk with a goal of prevention and early treatment, prior to development of the fully established syndrome. The focus of the present review is on the prevention of ARDS in patients without this condition at the time of their healthcare encounter. The primary thematic categories presented in the present review article include early identification of patients at risk of developing ARDS, optimization of care delivery and its impact on the incidence of ARDS, pharmacological prevention of ARDS, prevention of postoperative ARDS, and challenges and opportunities with ARDS prevention studies. Recent improvements in clinical care delivery have been associated with a decrease in the incidence of hospital-acquired ARDS. Despite the initial challenges, research in ARDS prevention has become increasingly feasible with several randomized controlled trials on ARDS prevention completed or on the way.
    Current Opinion in Critical Care 12/2014; 21(1). DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000174 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung protective ventilation strategies utilizing lower tidal volumes per predicted body weight (PBW) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been suggested to be beneficial in a variety of surgical populations. Recent clinical studies have used control groups ventilated with high tidal volumes without PEEP based on the assumption that this reflects current clinical practice. We hypothesized that ventilation strategies have changed over time, that most anesthetics in U.S. academic medical centers are currently performed with lower tidal volumes, and that most receive PEEP. Intraoperative data were pooled for adults undergoing general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Median tidal volumes per kilogram of PBW were categorized as > 10, 8-10 and < 8 mL per kg of PBW. The percentages of cases in 2013 that were performed with median tidal volumes < 8 mL per kg of PBW and PEEP were determined. As a secondary analysis, a proportional odds model using institution, year, height, weight and gender determined the relative associations of these factors using categorical and interquartile odds ratios. 295,540 cases were analyzed from 5 institutions over a period of 10 years. In 2013, 59.3% of cases used median tidal volumes < 8 mL per kg of PBW, 83.3% used PEEP, and 51.0% used both. Of those cases with PEEP, 60.9% used a median pressure of ≥ 5 cmH2O. Predictors of lower categories of tidal volumes included height (odds ratio (OR) 10.83, 95% confidence interval [10.50, 11.16]), institution (lowest OR 0.98 [0.96, 1.00], highest OR 9.63 [9.41, 9.86]), year (lowest OR 1.32 [1.21, 1.44], highest OR 6.31 [5.84, 6.82]), male gender (OR 1.10 [1.07, 1.12]), and weight (OR 0.30 [0.29, 0.31]). Most general anesthetics with tracheal intubation at the institutions surveyed are currently performed with a median tidal volume < 8 mL per kg of PBW, most are managed with PEEP of ≥ 5 cmH2O and approximately half utilize both. Given the diversity of the institutions included, this is likely reflective of practice in U.S. academic medical centers. The utilization of higher tidal volumes without PEEP in control groups for clinical research studies should be reconsidered.
    BMC Anesthesiology 12/2015; 15(1):40. DOI:10.1186/s12871-015-0010-3 · 1.38 Impact Factor
Show more