Article

First reported cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients in Jaipur District of Rajasthan, India

Tropical parasitology 03/2014; 4(1):50-2. DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.129166
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by the presence of a large number of lesions at several anatomic sites (head, limbs and trunk). The lesions include papules, nodules and areas of diffuse infiltration that do not ulcerate and reveal abundant parasites on histopathological examination. DCL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections are seldom reported. We report two cases of DCL in HIV positive patients without visceral involvement. DCL is emerging as a new opportunistic infection associated with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

0 Followers
 · 
32 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniases are emerging as an important disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons living in several sub-tropical and tropical regions around the world, including the Mediterranean. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is spreading at an alarming rate in Africa and the Indian subcontinent, areas with very high prevalence of leishmaniases. The spread of HIV into rural areas and the concomitant spread of leishmaniases to suburban/urban areas have helped maintain the occurrence of Leishmania/HIV co-infection in many parts of the world. The number of cases of Leishmania/HIV co-infection is expected to rise owing to the overlapping geographical distribution of the two infections. In Southwestern Europe, there is also an increasing incidence of Leishmania/HIV co-infection (particularly visceral leishmaniasis) in such countries as France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Studies suggest that in humans, very complex mechanisms involving dysregulation of host immune responses contribute to Leishmania-mediated immune activation and pathogenesis of HIV. In addition, both HIV-1 and Leishmania infect and multiply within cells of myeloid or lymphoid origin, thereby presenting a perfect recipe for reciprocal modulation of Leishmania and HIV-1-related disease pathogenesis. Importantly, because recovery from leishmaniases is associated with long-term persistence of parasites at the primary infection sites and their draining lymph nodes, there is very real possibility that HIV-mediated immunosuppression (due to CD4(+) T cell depletion) could lead to reactivation of latent infections (reactivation leishmaniasis) in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an overview of the immunopathogenesis of Leishmania/HIV co-infection and the implications of this interaction on Leishmania and HIV disease outcome.
    Immunologic Research 03/2013; 56(1). DOI:10.1007/s12026-013-8389-8 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In India, indigenous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are mainly confined to the northwestern region. But now, more and more case reports are coming in from other parts of India. In January 2009, a 26-year-old lady residing in a forest area in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala State presented with bluish red nodules on her upper extremities, of six months duration, which was clinically more in favor of cutaneous leishmaniasis. She had never gone out of the district of Thiruvananthapuram in her life. To investigate whether the patient hails from a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. An epidemiological investigation in the form of a survey was carried out in March 2009 by a multidisciplinary team among 63 persons residing in the Mele Aamala and Aayiramkala forest tribal settlements in Kuttichal Panchayat of Thiruvananthapuram district. History taking and clinical examination of 38 persons in the area with special consideration to skin lesions was undertaken. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the skin lesions was done. Breeding places of sand fly and possible reservoirs of Leishmania were also simultaneously investigated. The data obtained was tabulated as frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical significance of differences in distributions. Out of the 38 persons examined, active lesions were found in 12 persons and six had healed lesions. Tissue samples were obtained from seven out of the 12 suspected cases. Four of them showed Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in tissue smears. Out of the cultures taken from three patients, one showed promastigote forms in Novy McNeal Nicolle (NNN) medium. Histopathological study was done in five patients and two patients had LD bodies, one had epithelioid cell granuloma and the other two had mixed infiltrate with predominantly macrophages. All the three investigations were carried out in three patients and out of them one showed positivity in all the three investigations and the rest two were positive in tissue smear and histopathological examination. Sandflies collected from the area gave an indirect evidence of its role in the disease transmission in the area. The clinical, microbiological and histopathological evaluation of the skin lesions was consistent with cutaneous leishmaniasis. But none of the patients gave history of travel outside the district before the onset of the disease and no one had newly moved into this area within the last two years. So this may be considered as probably a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Journal of global infectious diseases 05/2010; 2(2):95-100. DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.62874
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Opportunistic parasitic infections such as leishmaniasis are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and are usually acquired several days after initial diagnosis of HIV infection. Here, we report on a patient who presented with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) caused by Leishmania tropica as the first and only clinical manifestation of HIV infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that illustrates that DCL could be the first clinical indicator of HIV infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and DCL are becoming frequent opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals throughout the world. To date, all documented cases of CL and HIV coinfections have been reported in patients who were known cases of HIV and who subsequently developed CL. In this report, we present a case that illustrates that DCL could be the first clinical indicator of HIV infection.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2011; 85(1):64-5. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0649 · 2.74 Impact Factor