Pharmacological chaperones stabilize retromer to limit APP processing.
ABSTRACT Retromer is a multiprotein complex that trafficks cargo out of endosomes. The neuronal retromer traffics the amyloid-precursor protein (APP) away from endosomes, a site where APP is cleaved into pathogenic fragments in Alzheimer's disease. Here we determined whether pharmacological chaperones can enhance retromer stability and function. First, we relied on the crystal structures of retromer proteins to help identify the 'weak link' of the complex and to complete an in silico screen of small molecules predicted to enhance retromer stability. Among the hits, an in vitro assay identified one molecule that stabilized retromer against thermal denaturation. Second, we turned to cultured hippocampal neurons, showing that this small molecule increases the levels of retromer proteins, shifts APP away from the endosome, and decreases the pathogenic processing of APP. These findings show that pharmacological chaperones can enhance the function of a multiprotein complex and may have potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative diseases.
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ABSTRACT: It is widely believed that host prion protein (PrP), without nucleic acid, converts itself into an infectious form (PrP-res) that causes transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs), such as human sporadic CJD (sCJD), endemic sheep scrapie and epidemic BSE. There are many detailed investigations of PrP, but proteomic studies of other proteins in verified infectious TSE particles have not been pursued, even though brain homogenates without PrP retain their complete infectious titer. To define proteins that may be integral to, process, or protect an agent genome, we developed a streamlined, high-yield purification of infectious FU-CJD mouse brain particles with minimal PrP. Proteinase K (PK) abolished all residual particle PrP, but did not reduce infectivity, and viral-size particles lacking PrP were ~70S (versus 90-120S without PK). Moreover, more than 1,500 non-PrP proteins were positively identified in high titer FU-CJD particles without detectable PrP by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); 114 of these peptides were linked to viral motifs in the environmental-viral database, and not evident in parallel uninfected controls. Host components were also identified in both PK and non-PK treated particles from FU-CJD mouse brain and human sCJD brain. This abundant cellular data had several surprises, including finding Huntingtin in the sCJD but not normal human brain samples. Similarly, the neural Wiskott-Aldrich sequence and multivesicular and endosome components associated with retromer APP (Alzheimer amyloid) processing were only in sCJD. These cellular findings suggest that new therapies directed at retromer-vesicular trafficking in other neurodegenerative diseases may also counteract late-onset sCJD PrP amyloid pathology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2014; 115(11). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24873
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Several genes have been associated with AD risk for nearly 20 years. However, it was not until the recent technological advances that allow for the analysis of millions of polymorphisms in thousands of subjects that we have been able to advance our understanding of the genetic complexity of AD susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies and whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing have revealed more than 20 loci associated with AD risk. These studies have provided insights into the molecular pathways that are altered in AD pathogenesis, which have, in turn, provided insight into novel therapeutic targets.Neuron 07/2014; 83(1):11-26. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.041
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2014; 111(34). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1413111111