Describing Sequencing Results of Structural Chromosome Rearrangements with a Suggested Next-Generation Cytogenetic Nomenclature.
ABSTRACT With recent rapid advances in genomic technologies, precise delineation of structural chromosome rearrangements at the nucleotide level is becoming increasingly feasible. In this era of "next-generation cytogenetics" (i.e., an integration of traditional cytogenetic techniques and next-generation sequencing), a consensus nomenclature is essential for accurate communication and data sharing. Currently, nomenclature for describing the sequencing data of these aberrations is lacking. Herein, we present a system called Next-Gen Cytogenetic Nomenclature, which is concordant with the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). This system starts with the alignment of rearrangement sequences by BLAT or BLAST (alignment tools) and arrives at a concise and detailed description of chromosomal changes. To facilitate usage and implementation of this nomenclature, we are developing a program designated BLA(S)T Output Sequence Tool of Nomenclature (BOSToN), a demonstrative version of which is accessible online. A standardized characterization of structural chromosomal rearrangements is essential both for research analyses and for application in the clinical setting.
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ABSTRACT: As an important subtype of structural variations, chromosomal translocation is associated with various diseases, especially cancers, by disrupting gene structures and functions. Traditional methods for identifying translocations are time consuming and have limited resolutions. Recently, a few studies have employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for characterizing chromosomal translocations on human genome, obtaining high-throughput results with high resolutions. However, these studies are mainly focused on mechanism-specific or site-specific translocation mapping. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genome-wide analysis on the characterization of human chromosomal material exchange with regard to the chromosome translocations. Using NGS data of 1,481 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified 15,349,092 translocated DNA fragment pairs, ranging from 65 bp to 1,886 bp and with an average size of ~102 bp. On average, each individual genome carried about 10,364 pairs, covering ~0.069% of the genome. We identified 16 translocation hot regions, among which two regions did not contain repetitive fragments. Results of our study overlapped with a majority of previous results, containing ~79% of ~2,340 translocations characterized in three available translocation databases. In addition, our study identified 5 novel potential recurrent chromosomal material exchange regions with >20% detection rates. Our results will be helpful for an accurate characterization of translocations in human genomes, and contribute as a resource for future studies of the roles of translocations in human disease etiology and mechanisms.Genome Biology and Evolution 10/2014; 6(11). DOI:10.1093/gbe/evu234 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromosomal aberrations include translocations, deletions, duplications, inversions, aneuploidies and complex rearrangements. They underlie genetic disease in roughly 15% of patients with multiple congenital abnormalities and/or mental retardation (MCA/MR). In genetic diagnostics, the pathogenicity of chromosomal aberrations in these patients is typically assessed based on criteria such as phenotypic similarity to other patients with the same or overlapping aberration, absence in healthy individuals, de novo occurrence, and protein coding gene content. However, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to MCA/MR as a result of chromosome aberrations is often lacking. Chromosome aberrations can affect one or more genes in a complex manner, such as by changing the regulation of gene expression, by disrupting exons, and by creating fusion genes. The precise delineation of breakpoints by whole-genome sequencing enables the construction of local genomic architecture and facilitates the prediction of the molecular determinants of the patient's phenotype. Here, we review current methods for breakpoint identification and their impact on the interpretation of chromosome aberrations in patients with MCA/MR. In addition, we discuss opportunities to dissect disease mechanisms based on large-scale genomic technologies and studies in model organisms.Molecular Cytogenetics 12/2014; 7(1):100. DOI:10.1186/s13039-014-0100-9 · 2.66 Impact Factor