Surgical Site Infection after Thyroidectomy: A Rare but Significant Complication
ABSTRACT Surgical site infections (SSIs) after thyroidectomy are rare but can have significant consequences. Thyroidectomy is a clean case, and the patterns for use of prophylactic antibiotics vary. We hypothesized that patient and operative characteristics may predict a higher risk of SSI, and that SSI are associated with other complications leading to increased resource utilization.
Data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset for patients who underwent thyroidectomy through cervical incisions from 2005-2011 were included. Bivariate analysis using t-tests and chi-square tests were performed, and variables with P < 0.2 were considered for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression model.
A total of 49,326 patients underwent thyroidectomy from 2005-2011 and 179 (0.36%) had an SSI. On multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of SSI were operative time (P < 0.001) and wound classification clean-contaminated (odds ratio 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.6, 10.3). Preoperative factors associated with SSI on multivariate analysis had lower magnitudes of influence on SSI risk but included obesity, alcohol use, and nonindependent functional status. Patients with SSI were more likely to have a wound dehiscence, renal insufficiency, bleeding requiring transfusion, and return to the operating room on a multivariate model of outcomes.
Although rare, SSI after thyroidectomy are associated with other postoperative complications. We have identified preoperative and intraoperative factors that are associated with SSI, and this may help identify high-risk patients who may benefit from selective use of antibiotics.
- SourceAvailable from: Nicola Avenia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Complication rates associated with thyroid surgery can be evaluated only through analysis of case studies and follow-up data. This study covers postoperative data from 14,934 patients subjected to a follow-up of 5 years. Among them, 3130 (20.9%) underwent total lobectomy (TL), 9599 (64.3%) total thyroidectomy (TT), 1448 (9.7%) subtotal thyroidectomy with a monolateral remnant (MRST), and 757 (5.1%) subtotal thyroidectomy with bilateral remnants (BRST). A total of 6% of the patients had already been operated on. Persistent hypoparathyroidism occurred after 1.7% of all the operations, and temporary hypoparathyroidism was noted in 8.3%. Permanent palsy of the laryngeal recurrent nerve (LRN) occurred in 1.0% of patients, transient palsy in 2.0%, and diplegia in 0.4%. The superior laryngeal nerve was damaged in 3.7%; dysphagia occurred in 1.4% of cases, hemorrhage in 1.2%, and wound infection in 0.3%. No deaths were reported. A significant rate of LRN damage was noted, which has an important impact on the patient's social life. Hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy is an important complication that can be successfully treated by therapy, although it is not always easily managed in special circumstances such as in young persons or pregnant women. The complications associated with thyroid surgery must be kept in mind so the surgeon can carefully evaluate the surgical and medical therapeutic options, have more precise surgical indications, and be able to give the patient adequate information.World Journal of Surgery 04/2004; 28(3):271-6. DOI:10.1007/s00268-003-6903-1 · 2.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We previously showed that previous chemotherapy and immediate breast reconstruction were associated with an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. The present before-after study evaluated a preventive strategy for high-risk patients. We compared the incidence of SSI in two prospective observational cohorts of patients underwent clean procedure in curative intent for a-biopsy proven breast cancer: a historical cohort followed before implementation of a preventive strategy and a second cohort followed thereafter. The strategy consisted of identifying patients at risk of SSI and prophylaxis administration of cefuroxime to those patients. The impact of our strategy was analyzed using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders. SSI incidence was estimated at 19/542 (3.5%) before preventive strategy versus 2/247 (0.8%) thereafter (crude odds ratio (OR) 0.22 confidence interval [95% CI 0.05-0.97], P = 0.03). After adjustment for confounders (breast reconstruction, previous breast surgery, and duration of surgery), our preventive strategy reduced the risk of SSI by 81% (adjusted OR 0.19 [95% CI 0.04-0.85], P = 0.03). These results showed that antibiotic prophylaxis is beneficial for patients at high-risk of WI after breast cancer surgery. Randomized controlled trials should now confirm these findings.Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2007; 96(2):124-9. DOI:10.1002/jso.20796 · 2.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Post-operatory wound infections are a very uncommon finding after thyroidectomy. For these reasons international guidelines do not routinely recommend systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. The benefits of this antibiotic prophylaxis is not supported by clinical evidence in the literature. We have conducted a multicentric randomized double-blind trial on 500 patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for goitre or thyroid carcinoma. The 500 patients enrolled in the study (mean age 47 years) were randomized in two subgroups of 250 patients. 250 patients were treated with standard antibiotic prophylaxis with sulbactam/ampicillin 1 fl (3 gr.) 30 min before surgery. No antibiotic prophylaxis was instituted in the remainder 250 patients. Our RCT showed that prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not beneficial in patients younger than eighty years old, with no concomitant metabolic, infective and hematologic disease, with no cardiac valvulopathies, not under steroidal or immunosuppressive treatment, and not severely obese. Our study should be regarded only as a preliminary RCT, and should be followed by a study in which a larger number of patients should be enrolled so that statistically significant data can be obtained.Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research 09/2009; 3:10. DOI:10.1186/1750-1164-3-10