Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic catastrophe and poor outcome is typically attributed to vasospasm; however, there is also evidence that SAH causes a pro-inflammatory state and these two phenomena may be interrelated. SAH causes activation of microglia, but the time course and degree of microglial activation after SAH and its link to poor patient outcome and vasospasm remains unknown.
Transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the control of the CX3CR1 locus, in which microglia are endogenously fluorescent, were randomly assigned to control or SAH groups. Immunohistochemistry for CD-68 and CD-31 was performed at different time points after SAH. Using confocal microscopy and MatLab software, we have developed a novel technique to detect and quantify the stages of microglial activation and return to quiescence using an automated computerized morphometric analysis.
We detected a statistically significant decrease in microglial process complexity 2 and 7 days following SAH. In addition, we detected a statistically significant increase in microglial domain volume 1 day following SAH; however, microglial domain volume returned to baseline by 2 days.
Most techniques for microglia assessment are qualitative, not quantitative, and are therefore inadequate to address the effects of anti-inflammatory drug treatment or other therapies after SAH.
Using novel image analysis techniques we were able to reproducibly quantify activation of microglia following SAH, which will improve our ability to study the biology of microglial activation, and may ultimately improve management of disease progression and response to therapies directed at microglial activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) provided neuroprotection in multiple central nervous system injury, but the roles of mGluR5 in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain unclear. In present study, we aimed to evaluate whether activation of mGluR5 attenuates early brain injury (EBI) after experimental SAH in rats. We found that selective mGluR5 orthosteric agonist CHPG or positive allosteric modulator VU0360172 administration significantly improves neurological function and attenuates brain edema at 24 h after SAH. Furthermore, mGluR5 obviously expresses in activated microglia (ED-1 positive) after SAH. CHPG or VU0360172 administration significantly reduces the numbers of activated microglia and the protein and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at 24 h after SAH. Moreover, CHPG or VU0360172 administration obviously reduces the number of TUNEL-positive cells and active caspase-3/NeuN-positive neurons in cortex at 24 h after SAH. CHPG or VU0360172 administration significantly up-regulates the expression of Bcl-2, and down-regulates the expression of Bax and active caspase-3, which in turn increases the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Our results indicate that activation of mGluR5 attenuates microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis, and improves neurological function in EBI after SAH.
Neurochemical Research 06/2015; 40(6):1121-1132. DOI:10.1007/s11064-015-1572-7 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence supporting the role of inflammation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) pathophysiology and it is of great interest to elucidate which immune mechanisms are involved.
12 aSAH patients and 28 healthy controls were enrolled prospectively. We assessed leukocytes subpopulations and their activation status by flow cytometry in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) of SAH patients at the same time and in PB of controls.
Monocytes and neutrophils were activated in CSF of aSAH patients. The percentage of CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes were higher in CSF than in PB of aSAH patients, and were also increased in PB of aSAH patients compared with controls. An enhanced expression of CD69 was shown in CSF neutrophils compared with PB in aSAH patients. PB of aSAH patients showed lower percentage of total lymphocytes compared with controls PB. Additionally, lymphocytes were activated in CSF and PB of aSAH patients. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells had a decreased expression on CD3 and higher levels of CD69 in CSF compared with PB in aSAH patients. Moreover, PB CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells of aSAH patients were activated compared with controls. Additionally, CD28 expression was decreased on CSF T lymphocytes.
Our data suggest an important recruitment of leukocytes to the site of injury in aSAH as well as an increased activation at this level. Overall, these results indicate that aSAH probably stimulates both the innate and adaptive immune responses.
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