Remote spinal cord injury in mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA after cervical decompression

Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 04/2014; 82(15):1382-3. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000341
Source: PubMed


Morquio A syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man #253000) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase encoded by the GALNS gene. Key clinical features are skeletal dysplasia and short stature.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: As spinal cord compression at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) is a life-threatening manifestation in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA, surgical decompression should be performed before damage becomes irreversible. We evaluated the diagnostic value of several examinations for determining the need for decompression surgery. Methods: We retrospectively analysed results of clinical neurological examination, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 28 MPS IVA patients. A scoring system - based on the severity of findings - was used to compare results of patients with and without indication for decompression surgery. Individual test scores and two composite scores were evaluated for their potential to assess severity of CCJ impairment. Results: Sixteen patients had an indication for surgery; 12 of them had undergone surgery. Twelve patients had no indication for surgery; none had received surgery. Neurological (P = 0.004), MRI (P < 0.001) and atlantoaxial subluxation (P = 0.006) scores, but not SEP and odontoid hypoplasia scores, differed significantly between patients with and without surgical indication. Both the abbreviated CCJ score, i.e. sum of neurological and MRI scores, and the extended CCJ score, i.e. sum of abbreviated CCJ and atlantoaxial subluxation score, discriminated between patients with and without surgical indication (abbreviated: 0-2 points vs 2-5 points, P < 0.001; extended: 0-3 points vs 3-7 points; P < 0.001). Although CCJ instability plays a major role in cervical cord pathology, decompression surgery without occipito-cervical stabilisation may yield good postoperative results. Conclusions: The abbreviated and extended CCJ scores are objective, transparent and reproducible tools for assessing the CCJ pathology and the need for surgery.
    04/2013; 11. DOI:10.1007/8904_2013_223
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    ABSTRACT: Morquio syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis type IV, is a rare enzyme deficiency disorder and results in skeletal dysplasia. Odontoid dysplasia is common among affected patients, resulting in atlantoaxial instability and spinal cord compression. Surgical treatments include decompression and prophylactic fusion, during which intraoperative neuromonitoring is important to alert the surgical team to changes in cord function so that they can prevent or mitigate spinal cord injury. This report describes a 16-year-old girl with Morquio syndrome who developed paraplegia due to thoracic spinal cord infarction during foramen magnum and atlantal decompression. This tragic event demonstrates the following: 1) that patients with Morquio syndrome are at risk for ischemic spinal cord injury at levels remote from areas of maximal anatomical compression while under anesthesia in the prone position, possibly due to impaired cardiac output; 2) the significance of absent motor evoked potential responses in the lower limbs with preserved upper-limb responses in an ambulatory patient; 3) the importance of establishing intraoperative neuromonitoring baseline assessments prior to turning patients to the prone position following induction of anesthesia; and 4) the importance of monitoring cardiac output during prone positioning in patients with chest wall deformity.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 06/2012; 9(6):608-12. DOI:10.3171/2012.2.PEDS11522 · 1.48 Impact Factor