Prediction of Daily Ratings of Psychosocial Functioning: Can Ratings of Personality Disorder Traits and Functioning Be Distinguished?
ABSTRACT Current categorical and dimensional conceptualizations of personality disorder (PD) typically confound pathological PD traits with distress and impairment (dysfunction). The current study examines whether dimensions of personality pathology and psychosocial dysfunction can be psychometrically distinguished. To that end, we collected self-report ratings of personality pathology and dysfunction at baseline, along with daily ratings of dysfunctional behavior, over 10 consecutive days. Correlations revealed substantial overlap between traits and dysfunction measured at baseline. However, follow-up hierarchical regressions revealed that baseline dysfunction ratings incrementally predicted daily dysfunction ratings after accounting for personality trait ratings, suggesting that traits and dysfunction are at least partially differentiable. However, the incremental effects were stronger for some dysfunction domains (i.e., Self-Mastery and Basic Functioning) than for others (Well-Being and Interpersonal), suggesting that maladaptive trait measures are more confounded with the latter types of impairment. These findings suggest that distinguishing maladaptive PD traits from functioning in PD classification systems is likely more difficult than would be expected, a finding that has important implications for the competing Section II and Section III conceptualizations of PD presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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ABSTRACT: This article presents a framework for studying personality in the stress process. The framework specifies that personality may affect both exposure and reactivity to stressful events and that both processes may explain how personality affects health and psychological outcomes. The framework also specifies that personality differences in reactivity may be due to differential choice of coping efforts and differential effectiveness of those efforts. In a 14-day daily study of 94 students, this framework was used to analyze the links among neuroticism, daily interpersonal conflicts, coping with conflicts, and distress. Results showed that high-neuroticism participants had greater exposure and reactivity to conflicts. Furthermore, high- and low-neuroticism participants differed both in their choice of coping efforts and in the effectiveness of those efforts, a possibility not considered in previous models of personality in the stress process.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12/1995; 69(5):890-902. DOI:10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1240 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This chapter reviews recent (2000-2005) personality disorder (PD) research, focusing on three major domains: assessment, comorbidity, and stability. (a) Substantial evidence has accrued favoring dimensional over categorical conceptualization of PD, and the five-factor model of personality is prominent as an integrating framework. Future directions include assessing dysfunction separately from traits and learning to utilize collateral information. (b) To address the pervasiveness and extent of comorbidity, researchers have begun to move beyond studying overlapping pairs or small sets of disorders and are developing broader, more integrated common-factor models that cross the Axis I-Axis II boundary. (c) Studies of PD stability have converged on the finding that PD features include both more acute, dysfunctional behaviors that resolve in relatively short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are relatively more stable-similar to normal-range personality traits-with increasing stability until after 50 years of age. A new model for assessing PD-and perhaps all psychopathology-emerges from integrating these interrelated reconceptualizations.Annual Review of Psychology 02/2007; 58:227-57. DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190200 · 20.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The convergent and discriminant validity of Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits with concurrent and prospective social, work, and recreational dysfunction was assessed in a large, longitudinal clinical sample. Consistent with five factor theoretical expectations, neuroticism is broadly related to dysfunction across domains; extraversion is primarily related to social and recreational dysfunction; openness to recreational dysfunction; agreeableness to social dysfunction; and conscientiousness to work dysfunction. Findings support five factor theory and the clinical assessment of normative personality traits.Journal of personality disorders 10/2009; 23(5):466-76. DOI:10.1521/pedi.2009.23.5.466 · 3.08 Impact Factor