Current categorical and dimensional conceptualizations of personality disorder (PD) typically confound pathological PD traits with distress and impairment (dysfunction). The current study examines whether dimensions of personality pathology and psychosocial dysfunction can be psychometrically distinguished. To that end, we collected self-report ratings of personality pathology and dysfunction at baseline, along with daily ratings of dysfunctional behavior, over 10 consecutive days. Correlations revealed substantial overlap between traits and dysfunction measured at baseline. However, follow-up hierarchical regressions revealed that baseline dysfunction ratings incrementally predicted daily dysfunction ratings after accounting for personality trait ratings, suggesting that traits and dysfunction are at least partially differentiable. However, the incremental effects were stronger for some dysfunction domains (i.e., Self-Mastery and Basic Functioning) than for others (Well-Being and Interpersonal), suggesting that maladaptive trait measures are more confounded with the latter types of impairment. These findings suggest that distinguishing maladaptive PD traits from functioning in PD classification systems is likely more difficult than would be expected, a finding that has important implications for the competing Section II and Section III conceptualizations of PD presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
"In the present study, multiple informants and multiple interview measures—covering social life, family, romantic, and work functioning—were used to characterize psychosocial functioning. By focusing on these social and occupational domains—and by querying multiple informants—we aimed to minimize overlap with personality trait and personality " functioning " constructs (e.g., Bender et al., 2011; Calabrese & Simms, 2014), thereby limiting criterion contamination in our analyses of PD-functioning associations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transdiagnostic models hold promise for transforming research and treatment practices for personality disorders (PDs), but widespread acceptance and implementation of such approaches will require persuasive evidence of construct validity and clinical utility. Toward that end, the authors examined the criterion-related validity of a transdiagnostic PD model in relation to psychosocial and clinical outcomes in a high-risk community sample of 700 young adults. Participants and their mothers completed semistructured interviews to assess young adults' PD symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, suicidality, and mental health treatment use. Bifactor modeling revealed an overarching dimension of PD severity-capturing symptoms across all PD categories-that strongly predicted all functional and clinical outcomes in multivariate analyses. Effect sizes for lower-order, specific PD processes were comparatively modest for functional outcomes; however, they provided clinically significant information about suicide risk and treatment use. The authors discuss implications of a transdiagnostic perspective for research on PD etiology, classification, and treatment.
Journal of personality disorders 07/2015; DOI:10.1521/pedi_2015_29_218 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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