The Reliability of Self-assessment of Affective State in Different Phases of Bipolar Disorder.
ABSTRACT Some studies have indicated that the capacity of self-assessment of affective state is more compromised during mania than during depression. In the present study, we investigated whether the reliability of self-assessment in bipolar disorder varies as a function of actual affective state (i.e., euthymia, mania, or depression). Sixty-five patients with a diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar disorder were evaluated with regard to the occurrence of an affective syndrome using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. In parallel, we applied the Analog Visual Mood Scale, a self-assessment tool to evaluate mood changes. The same individual prospectively completed the self-assessment scale in different affective states. During depression, the patients' evaluation was significantly different from when they were in manic or euthymic mood states. However, when in mania, the patients evaluated their mood state similarly to when they were euthymic. The bipolar patients in mania but not in depression did not reliably evaluate themselves with regard to their affective state.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation has emerged as a potentially important factor - and thus putative pharmacological target - in the pathology of bipolar disorders. However to date no systematic evaluations of the efficacy of add on anti-inflammatory treatment for the depressive and manic episodes have been carried out. Sixteen articles were ultimately identified - by computer searches of databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE), supplemented by hand searches and personal communication - as meeting study inclusion criteria. Anti-manic effects were evaluated in two trials, one of adjunctive n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), one of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), and significant improvements only emerged for NAC. Celecoxib had a rapid but short-lived antidepressant effect. Despite limited effects of O3FA on symptoms, imaging data demonstrated alterations in neuronal functioning that might have longer-term therapeutic effects. Evidence was strongest for adjunctive NAC in bipolar depression though conclusions are limited by small sample sizes. Definitive conclusions are limited by the paucity of data, small study sizes, and the variability in methodology used. Current evidence for aspirin or celecoxib is insufficient though further investigation of the potential of celecoxib in early illness onset is warranted. Variable evidence exists for add-on O3FA though an indication of short-term treatment effects on membrane fluidity and neuronal activity suggest longer follow-up assessment is needed. The strongest evidence emerged for NAC in depression and future studies must address the role of illness duration and patients׳ baseline medications on outcomes. Careful consideration of lithium toxicity in the elderly and renal impaired is essential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:467-478. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.015 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In bipolar disorder, levels of insight vary as a function of the mood state and appear to influence pharmacology compliance, quality of life, the presence of suicidal ideations, and aggressive behavior. To establish a comparison among different mood states in bipolar with regard to level of insight. Forty-eight patients were evaluated in different affective states (i.e., euthymia, mania, depression, and mixed state). Identifying information, sociodemographic data, and clinical records were recorded. The following scales were applied: Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptoms subscale, and Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar disorder. Insight was evaluated using items 11 and 17 of the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale, respectively. Insight in bipolar disorder was found to be more compromised during manic phases and mixed episodes than during periods of depression or euthymia. The factors associated with lower levels of insight were the following: shorter illness duration, older age, and greater severity in mania; the female gender and older age in depression; and shorter illness duration and more severe depressive symptoms in mixed episodes. In the same individual, levels of insight vary as a function of the affective state over the course of bipolar disorder and appear to be influenced by several clinical variables.Psychiatric Quarterly 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11126-015-9340-z · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the last few decades, several tools for studying insight in bipolar disorders have been used. Olaya and colleagues developed the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD), which consists of a scale measuring insight through hetero evaluation for patients with mood disorders. The objective of this work is to translate and adapt the original English version of the ISAD to Brazilian Portuguese (ISAD-BR) and to conduct an evaluation of its psychometric properties. Adaptation procedures included translation/back-translation and consultation with a panel of experts. 95 patients with the diagnosis of Type 1 bipolar disorder were evaluated with the final version of the ISAD-BR, which was applied, simultaneously, but independently, by two examiners. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were explored and the latent structure of the scale was investigated with principal axis factoring and promax rotation. A second-order factor analysis was conducted to test if the scale had a hierarchical factor structure. The ISAD-BR showed good internal consistency and good inter-rater reliability. The analysis pointed to a four-factor solution of the ISAD-BR: awareness of symptoms associated with activity/energy; awareness of having a disorder; awareness of self-esteem and feelings of pleasure; and awareness of social functioning and relationships. The second order factor analysis indicated a hierarchical factor structure for the ISAD-BR, with the four lower-order factors loading on a single higher-order factor. Insight into bipolar disorder is a multidimensional construct, covering different aspects of the condition and its symptomatology. Nevertheless, insight about activity/energy changes may be a crucial aspect of insight into bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 178:181-187. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.002 · 3.71 Impact Factor