Comprehensive analysis of circulating adipokines and HsCRP association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Arabs.

Cardiovascular Diabetology (Impact Factor: 4.02). 04/2014; 13(1):76. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-13-76
Source: PubMed


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide including the Middle East. This is caused in part by the dysregulation of adipose tissue leading to increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines and reduction in cardio-protective adipokines such as adiponectin. Ethnicity has been recognized as a major factor in the association between CVD risk factors and the different circulating adipokines. In this study, for the first time, the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and circulating level of adipokines in Arab ethnicity was investigated.
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey on 379 adult Arab participants living in Kuwait. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Plasma levels of circulating Leptin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and adipsin were assessed using the multiplexing immunobead-based assay.
Circulating levels of High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), Leptin, PAI-1 and adiponectin were significantly higher in Arab women than men (p < 0.0001). In multi-variate analysis, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body mass index (BMI) showed strong association with most of the biomarkers (p < 0.05). HsCRP showed significant association with all risk factors (p < 0.05). Leptin, PAI-1 and adipsin showed significant positive correlation with BMI, unlike adiponectin which showed inverse correlation (p < 0.05). Subjects in the highest tertile of leptin, PAI-1 and hsCRP had higher odds of having Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (odd ratio [OR] = 3.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.47 - 6.19) and (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45 - 4.35), (OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 2.39 - 7.59) respectively. On the other hand subjects with highest tertile of adiponectin had lower odds of having MetS (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.40). Leptin, PAI-1 and hsCRP showed significant positive association with increased MetS components (P-trend <0.05), while adiponectin was negatively associated with increased MetS components (P-trend <0.0001).
Our results show positive association between hsCRP, leptin, PAI-1 with increased MetS components and increase the odds of having MetS. Adiponectin on the other hand showed inverse correlation with MetS components and associated with reduction in MetS. Overall, our data highlights the significant clinical value these markers have in MetS especially hsCRP which can be used as good marker of low grade inflammation in Arabs.

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Available from: Mohamed Abu-farha, May 07, 2014
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    • "An informed written consent was obtained from all the participants before their enrolment in the study. Subjects with CVD were excluded from the study as outlined previously [14]. History of medication was recorded as shown previously [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a stomach produced hormone that has been shown to have protective role against development of CVD which is a leading cause of death in the Arab world. The objective of this study is to examine the gender difference in association between traditional CVD risk factors and plasma ghrelin among Arabs. 359 Arab residents in Kuwait participated in a cross-sectional survey (≥20 years old): 191 were females and 168 were males. Plasma level of ghrelin was assessed using Luminex-based assay. Ghrelin levels were significantly higher in females (935 ± 78 pg/mL) than males (763 ± 65 pg/mL) (P = 0.0007). Females showed inverse association with WC (r = -0.23, P = 0.001) and HbA1C (r = -0.19, P = 0.0102) as well as SBP (r = -0.15, P = 0.0383) and DBP (r = -0.16, P = 0.0230), respectively. Higher levels of ghrelin were shown to associate with increased insulin resistance, as measured by HOMAIR, in male Arab subjects (P-trend = 0.0202) but not in females. In this study we show that higher ghrelin level was negatively associated with measures of obesity, HbA1C, and blood pressure in females and positively associated with increased insulin resistance in Arab males.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 09/2014; 2014:730472. DOI:10.1155/2014/730472 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, leptin plays an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior and is closely associated with body mass index (BMI) and AH [9]. Leptin was shown to be associated with IR and other cardiometabolic risk factors in certain populations [10-12]. "
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