Brief Report of Affective State and Depression Status After Traumatic Brain Injury
ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the relationship between affective state (positive and negative affect) and depression status among adults with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Research Method: This is a cross-sectional cohort study of community-dwelling adults with chronic TBI (n = 64) that assesses the relationship between affective state (positive and negative affect), using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and depression status, categorized as no depression, history of depressive episode, and current depressive episode, using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD). Results: Affective state differed significantly across depression status groups for both positive affect (F (2, 61) = 5.10, p = .009) and negative affect (F ( 2, 61) = 8.19, p = .001). Participants with no depression reported higher positive affect (M = 35.67, SD = 9.08) than those with a current depressive episode (M = 27.64, SD = 8.59, p = .007) and lower negative affect (M = 14.52, SD = 5.08) than those with a history of a depressive episode (M = 20.21, SD = 5.08, p = .006) and those with a current depressive episode (M = 22.29, SD = 6.21, p = .001). Conclusions: Poor affective state, including both low positive affect and high negative affect, is associated with depression diagnosis. High negative affect is present, even in the absence of a current depressive episode, after TBI. These data highlight the need to assess affective state in addition to screening for mood disorders among adults with chronic TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies investigating the relationship between affective state and community integration have focused primarily on the influence of depression and anxiety. In addition, they have focused on frequency of participation in various activities, failing to address an individual's subjective satisfaction with participation. The purpose of this study was to examine how affective state contributes to frequency of participation and satisfaction with participation after traumatic brain injury among participants with and without a current major depressive episode. Sixty-four community-dwelling participants with a history of complicated mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury participated in this cross-sectional cohort study. High positive affect contributed significantly to frequency of participation (β = 0.401, P = 0.001), and both high positive affect and low negative affect significantly contributed to better satisfaction with participation (F2,61 = 13.63, P < 0.001). Further investigation to assess the direction of these relationships may better inform effective targets for intervention. These findings highlight the importance of assessing affective state after traumatic brain injury and incorporating a subjective measure of participation when considering community integration outcomes.American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 08/2014; DOI:10.1097/PHM.0000000000000163 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: While current literature reports associations between psychiatric illnesses and sleep dysfunction, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and sleep dysfunction, and TBI and psychiatric illnesses, the relationship between all three variables has not been examined. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of data from a consecutive sample of medical records of 106 head injured workers was performed. Abstracted data included that related to occupation, cause of head injury, diagnoses of TBI and sleep disorders, self-reported sleep complaints, mental health functioning, and demographic details. Results: The majority of workers with head trauma were diagnosed with mild TBI or concussion. Diagnosis of TBI was associated with increased odds of post-injury worsening of sleep (odds ratio 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–18.9). Among those with TBI, those with worsened sleep were significantly more likely to experience depression (p = 0.003). A primary sleep disorder was established in 37.8% of our TBI sample, including new diagnoses and diagnoses in those with history of a sleep disorder. Conclusion: Self-perceived worsening of sleep was associated with brain injury. A diagnosis of depression was significantly related to sleep quality in those with TBI. When faced with sleep complaints in persons with head trauma, the clinician’s first task must be identification of underlying abnormalities for proper differential diagnosis and treatment. Acknowledgements: The authors greatly acknowledge the support of Toronto Rehabilitation Institute. Tatyana Mollayeva acknowledges financial support from the TRI-UHN and the Frederick Banting and Charles Best Doctoral Research Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Angela Colantonio acknowledges financial support from the CIHR in Gender, Work and Health (CGW-126580). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2015.02.142World Congress on Sleep Medicine, March 21 - 25, 2015 Seoul, Korea; 03/2015