A 52-Week Placebo-Controlled Trial of Evolocumab in Hyperlipidemia.
ABSTRACT Background Evolocumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in phase 2 studies. We conducted a phase 3 trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 52 weeks of treatment with evolocumab. Methods We stratified patients with hyperlipidemia according to the risk categories outlined by the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. On the basis of this classification, patients were started on background lipid-lowering therapy with diet alone or diet plus atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg daily, atorvastatin at a dose of 80 mg daily, or atorvastatin at a dose of 80 mg daily plus ezetimibe at a dose of 10 mg daily, for a run-in period of 4 to 12 weeks. Patients with an LDL cholesterol level of 75 mg per deciliter (1.9 mmol per liter) or higher were then randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either evolocumab (420 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks. The primary end point was the percent change from baseline in LDL cholesterol, as measured by means of ultracentrifugation, at week 52. Results Among the 901 patients included in the primary analysis, the overall least-squares mean (±SE) reduction in LDL cholesterol from baseline in the evolocumab group, taking into account the change in the placebo group, was 57.0±2.1% (P<0.001). The mean reduction was 55.7±4.2% among patients who underwent background therapy with diet alone, 61.6±2.6% among those who received 10 mg of atorvastatin, 56.8±5.3% among those who received 80 mg of atorvastatin, and 48.5±5.2% among those who received a combination of 80 mg of atorvastatin and 10 mg of ezetimibe (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Evolocumab treatment also significantly reduced levels of apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza, and back pain. Conclusions At 52 weeks, evolocumab added to diet alone, to low-dose atorvastatin, or to high-dose atorvastatin with or without ezetimibe significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with a range of cardiovascular risks. (Funded by Amgen; DESCARTES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01516879 .).
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Mathieu Berger[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is highly expressed in the kidney, where its function remains unclear. In vitro data suggested that PCSK9 could impair the trafficking of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC). Here, we aimed at determining the consequences of PCSK9-deficiency on blood pressure, sodium balance and ENaC function in vivo in mice. Blood pressure was measured using non-invasive tail-cuff system or radiotelemetry under basal conditions in male and female PCSK9(+/+) and PCSK9(-/-) mice, as well as in models of hypertension: l-NAME (2 mg/kg/day), angiotensin II (1 mg/kg/day) and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt in male mice only. Plasma and urine electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) were collected under basal conditions, after DOCA-salt and amiloride treatment. Renal expression of ENaC subunits was assessed by western blotting. PCSK9-deficiency did not alter both basal blood pressure and its increase in salt-insensitive (l-NAME) and salt-sensitive (Ang-II and DOCA-salt) hypertension models. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were increased by 2.8 fold in DOCA-salt-induced hypertension. The relative expression of the cleaved, active, 30-kDa αENaC subunit was significantly increased by 32% in kidneys of PCSK9(-/-) mice under basal, but not under high-Na(+) diet or DOCA-salt conditions. Amiloride increased urinary Na(+) excretion to similar level in both genotypes, indicating that ENaC activity was not affected by PCSK9-deficiency. Despite an increase of cleaved αENaC under basal condition, PCSK9(-/-) mice display normal sodium balance and blood pressure regulation. Altogether, these data are reassuring regarding the development of PCSK9 inhibitors in hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Atherosclerosis 08/2014; 235(2):e35-e36. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulatory ligand that terminates the lifecycle of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) thus affecting plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Recent evidence shows that in addition to the straightforward mechanism of action, there are more complex interactions between PCSK9, LDLR and plasma lipoprotein levels, including: (a) the presence of both parallel and reciprocal regulation of surface LDLR and plasma PCSK9; (b) a correlation between PCSK9 and LDL-C levels dependent not only on the fact that PCSK9 removes hepatic LDLR, but also due to the fact that up to 40% of plasma PCSK9 is physically associated with LDL; and (c) an association between plasma PCSK9 production and the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.Atherosclerosis 12/2014; 238(2). · 3.71 Impact Factor
- European heart journal. 01/2015;