Platelet Lipidomics Modern Day Perspective on Lipid Discovery and Characterization in Platelets

Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.09). 03/2014; 114(7):1185-203. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.301597
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lipids are diverse families of biomolecules that perform essential structural and signaling roles in platelets. Their formation and metabolism are tightly controlled by enzymes and signal transduction pathways, and their dysregulation leads to significant defects in platelet function and disease. Platelet activation is associated with significant changes to membrane lipids, and formation of diverse bioactive lipids plays essential roles in hemostasis. In recent years, new generation mass spectrometry analysis of lipids (termed lipidomics) has begun to alter our understanding of how these molecules participate in key cellular processes. Although the application of lipidomics to platelet biology is still in its infancy, seminal earlier studies have shaped our knowledge of how lipids regulate key aspects of platelet biology, including aggregation, shape change, coagulation, and degranulation, as well as how lipids generated by platelets influence other cells, such as leukocytes and the vascular wall, and thus how they regulate hemostasis, vascular integrity, and inflammation, as well as contribute to pathologies, including arterial/deep vein thrombosis and atherosclerosis. This review will provide a brief historical perspective on the characterization of lipids in platelets, then an overview of the new generation lipidomic approaches, their recent application to platelet biology, and future perspectives for research in this area. The major platelet-regulatory lipid families, their formation, metabolism, and their role in health and disease, will be summarized.

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Available from: Murphy C Robert, Jan 14, 2015
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