Biomarkers and neurodevelopment in perinatally HIV-infected or exposed youth

AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 01/2014; 28(3):355-64. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000072
Source: PubMed


To examine the relationship between markers of vascular dysfunction and neurodevelopmental outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth.
Cross-sectional design within a prospective, 15-site US-based cohort study.
Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated in relation to nine selected vascular biomarkers in 342 youth (212 PHIV+, 130 PHEU). Serum levels were assessed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-selectin), monocyte chemoattractant protein (sMCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and P-selectin (sP-selectin). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was administered at entry, yielding a Full-Scale IQ score, and four index scores. Factor analysis was conducted to reduce the biomarkers to fewer factors with related biological roles. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to measure associations between resulting factors and WISC-IV scores.
Mean participant age was 11.4 years, 54% were female, 70% black. The nine biomarkers were clustered into three factor groups: F1 (fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6); F2 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1); and F3 (MCP-1, sP-selectin, and sE-selectin). Adiponectin showed little correlation with any factor. SEMs revealed significant negative association of F1 with WISC-IV processing speed score in the total cohort. This effect remained significant after adjusting for HIV status and other potential confounders. A similar association was observed when restricted to PHIV+ participants in both unadjusted and adjusted SEMs.
Aggregate measures of fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6 may serve as a latent biomarker associated with relatively decreased processing speed in both PHIV+ and PHEU youth.

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Available from: Suad Kapetanovic, Dec 11, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in perinatally HIV-infected children has declined since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Early initiation of cART in infancy has been shown to positively impact neurodevelopment; however, children continue to be diagnosed with HIV outside of the early infancy period and can experience subtle to severe neurocognitive deficits despite cART. The causes of these neurocognitive deficits despite effective cART are multifactorial and likely include continued viral replication in the CNS, ongoing neuroinflammation, irreversible CNS injury prior to cART initiation, neurotoxic effects of cART, and socioeconomic and psychosocial effects. Many aspects of our understanding of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have emerged from research in adult patients, but perinatally HIV-infected children represent a very different population. These children were exposed to HIV during a period of rapid brain development and have lifelong infection and potential lifelong cART exposure. HIV is no longer a rapidly fatal disease, and most HIV-infected children in resource-rich countries are living into adulthood. It is therefore critical to optimize neurocognitive outcomes of these youth. This review summarizes current understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-associated CNS infection and the impact of cART on neurocognitive function in children and adolescents and discusses important areas for future research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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