Craniofacial and dental development in Costello syndrome.
ABSTRACT Costello syndrome (CS) is a RASopathy characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and developmental abnormalities. The RASopathies are defined as a group of syndromes caused by activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Specifically, CS is caused by activating mutations in HRAS. Although receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, which is upstream of Ras/MAPK, is known to play a critical role in craniofacial and dental development, the craniofacial and dental features of CS have not been systematically defined in a large group of individuals. In order to address this gap in our understanding and fully characterize the CS phenotype, we evaluated the craniofacial and dental phenotype in a large cohort (n = 41) of CS individuals. We confirmed that the craniofacial features common in CS include macrocephaly, bitemporal narrowing, convex facial profile, full cheeks, and large mouth. Additionally, CS patients have a characteristic dental phenotype that includes malocclusion with anterior open bite and posterior crossbite, enamel hypo-mineralization, delayed tooth development and eruption, gingival hyperplasia, thickening of the alveolar ridge, and high palate. Comparison of the craniofacial and dental phenotype in CS with other RASopathies, such as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), provides insight into the complexities of Ras/MAPK signaling in human craniofacial and dental development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: The Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous condition that is characterized by a wide range of malformations, sometimes involving the face. Common manifestations include partial gigantism, congenital lipomas, and plantar hyperplasia. In this report we describe the craniofacial clinicopathological development in a girl with Proteus syndrome from age 6 to 20 years. The patient had pronounced hemifacial hypertrophy, exostoses in the left parietal region, and enlargement of the inferior alveolar nerve and mandibular canal in the affected region. The dental development of the affected left mandible and maxilla was characterized by extremely premature development and eruption of the primary and permanent teeth and by pronounced idiopathic root resorptions. The multidisciplinary management of the patient and the treatment outcome is reported. A review of the Proteus patients in the literature who exhibited manifestation in the craniofacial region is presented.The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 04/2002; 39(2):233-45. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare, autosomal dominant form of gingival overgrowth. Affected individuals have a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of the oral masticatory mucosa. Genetic loci for autosomal dominant forms of HGF have been localized to chromosome 2p21-p22 (HGF1) and chromosome 5q13-q22 (HGF2). To identify the gene responsible for HGF1, we extended genetic linkage studies to refine the chromosome 2p21-p22 candidate interval to approximately 2.3 Mb. Development of an integrated physical and genetic map of the interval identified 16 genes. Sequencing of these genes, in affected and unaffected HGF1 family members, identified a mutation in the Son of sevenless-1 (SOS1) gene in affected individuals. In this report, we describe the genomic structure of the SOS1 gene and present evidence that insertion of a cytosine between nucleotides 126,142 and 126,143 in codon 1083 of the SOS1 gene is responsible for HGF1. This insertion mutation, which segregates in a dominant manner over four generations, introduces a frameshift and creates a premature stop codon, abolishing four functionally important proline-rich SH3 binding domains normally present in the carboxyl-terminal region of the SOS1 protein. The resultant protein chimera contains the wild-type SOS1 protein for the N-terminal amino acids 1-1083 fused to a novel 22-amino acid carboxyl terminus. Similar SOS1 deletion constructs are functional in animal models, and a transgenic mouse construct with a comparable SOS1 chimera produces a phenotype with skin hypertrophy. Clarification of the functional role of this SOS1 mutant has implications for understanding other forms of gingival fibromatosis and corrective gingival-tissue management.The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2002; 70(4):943-54. · 10.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All ectodermal organs, e.g. hair, teeth, and many exocrine glands, originate from two adjacent tissue layers: the epithelium and the mesenchyme. Similar sequential and reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme regulate the early steps of development in all ectodermal organs. Generally, the mesenchyme provides the first instructive signal, which is followed by the formation of the epithelial placode, an early signaling center. The placode buds into or out of the mesenchyme, and subsequent proliferation, cell movements, and differentiation of the epithelium and mesenchyme contribute to morphogenesis. The molecular signals regulating organogenesis, such as molecules in the FGF, TGFbeta, Wnt, and hedgehog families, regulate the development of all ectodermal appendages repeatedly during advancing morphogenesis and differentiation. In addition, signaling by ectodysplasin, a recently identified member of the TNF family, and its receptor Edar is required for ectodermal organ development across vertebrate species. Here the current knowledge on the molecular regulation of the initiation, placode formation, and morphogenesis of ectodermal organs is discussed with emphasis on feathers, hair, and teeth.Developmental Biology 11/2003; 262(2):195-205. · 3.64 Impact Factor