Craniofacial and Dental Development in Costello Syndrome
ABSTRACT Costello syndrome (CS) is a RASopathy characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and developmental abnormalities. The RASopathies are defined as a group of syndromes caused by activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Specifically, CS is caused by activating mutations in HRAS. Although receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, which is upstream of Ras/MAPK, is known to play a critical role in craniofacial and dental development, the craniofacial and dental features of CS have not been systematically defined in a large group of individuals. In order to address this gap in our understanding and fully characterize the CS phenotype, we evaluated the craniofacial and dental phenotype in a large cohort (n = 41) of CS individuals. We confirmed that the craniofacial features common in CS include macrocephaly, bitemporal narrowing, convex facial profile, full cheeks, and large mouth. Additionally, CS patients have a characteristic dental phenotype that includes malocclusion with anterior open bite and posterior crossbite, enamel hypo-mineralization, delayed tooth development and eruption, gingival hyperplasia, thickening of the alveolar ridge, and high palate. Comparison of the craniofacial and dental phenotype in CS with other RASopathies, such as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), provides insight into the complexities of Ras/MAPK signaling in human craniofacial and dental development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare, autosomal dominant form of gingival overgrowth. Affected individuals have a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of the oral masticatory mucosa. Genetic loci for autosomal dominant forms of HGF have been localized to chromosome 2p21-p22 (HGF1) and chromosome 5q13-q22 (HGF2). To identify the gene responsible for HGF1, we extended genetic linkage studies to refine the chromosome 2p21-p22 candidate interval to approximately 2.3 Mb. Development of an integrated physical and genetic map of the interval identified 16 genes. Sequencing of these genes, in affected and unaffected HGF1 family members, identified a mutation in the Son of sevenless-1 (SOS1) gene in affected individuals. In this report, we describe the genomic structure of the SOS1 gene and present evidence that insertion of a cytosine between nucleotides 126,142 and 126,143 in codon 1083 of the SOS1 gene is responsible for HGF1. This insertion mutation, which segregates in a dominant manner over four generations, introduces a frameshift and creates a premature stop codon, abolishing four functionally important proline-rich SH3 binding domains normally present in the carboxyl-terminal region of the SOS1 protein. The resultant protein chimera contains the wild-type SOS1 protein for the N-terminal amino acids 1-1083 fused to a novel 22-amino acid carboxyl terminus. Similar SOS1 deletion constructs are functional in animal models, and a transgenic mouse construct with a comparable SOS1 chimera produces a phenotype with skin hypertrophy. Clarification of the functional role of this SOS1 mutant has implications for understanding other forms of gingival fibromatosis and corrective gingival-tissue management.The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2002; 70(4):943-54. DOI:10.1086/339689 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly and mental retardation syndrome characterized by coarse face, loose skin, cardiomyopathy and predisposition to tumors. We identified four heterozygous de novo mutations of HRAS in 12 of 13 affected individuals, all of which were previously reported as somatic and oncogenic mutations in various tumors. Our observations suggest that germline mutations in HRAS perturb human development and increase susceptibility to tumors.Nature Genetics 11/2005; 37(10):1038-40. DOI:10.1038/ng1641 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a sporadic developmental disorder involving characteristic craniofacial features, cardiac defects, ectodermal abnormalities, and developmental delay. We demonstrate that heterogeneous de novo missense mutations in three genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway cause CFC syndrome. The majority of cases (18 out of 23) are caused by mutations in BRAF, a gene frequently mutated in cancer. Of the 11 mutations identified, two result in amino acid substitutions that occur in tumors, but most are unique and suggest previously unknown mechanisms of B-Raf activation. Furthermore, three of five individuals without BRAF mutations had missense mutations in either MEK1 or MEK2, downstream effectors of B-Raf. Our findings highlight the involvement of the MAPK pathway in human development and will provide a molecular diagnosis of CFC syndrome.Science 04/2006; 311(5765):1287-90. DOI:10.1126/science.1124642 · 31.48 Impact Factor