Pharmacokinetics of topiramate in patients with renal impairment, end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis, or hepatic impairment
Topiramate is primarily renally excreted. Chronic renal and hepatic impairment can affect the clearance of topiramate. Therefore, the objective was to establish dosage guidelines for topiramate in chronic renal impairment, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis, or chronic hepatic impairment patients.
In 3 separate open-label, parallel group studies (n = 5-7/group), in patients with mild-moderate and severe renal impairment (based on creatinine clearance), ESRD requiring hemodialysis, or moderate-severe hepatic impairment (based on Child-Pugh classification) and matching healthy participants, pharmacokinetics of a single oral 100 mg topiramate was determined.
Compared with healthy controls, overall exposure (AUC0-∞) for topiramate was higher in mild-moderate (85%) and severe renal impairment (117%), consistent with significantly (p < 0.05) lower apparent total body clearance (CL/F) and renal clearance (CLR), leading to longer elimination half-life. Both CLR and CL/F of topiramate correlated well with renal function. CL/F was comparable in ESRD and severe renal impairment. Half of usual starting and maintenance dose is recommended in moderate-severe renal impairment patients, and those with ESRD. Hemodialysis effectively removed plasma topiramate with mean dialysis clearance approximately 12-fold greater than CL/F (123.5 mL/min versus 10.8 mL/min). Compared with healthy matched, patients with moderate-severe hepatic impairment exhibited small increase (29%) in topiramate peak plasma concentrations and AUC0-∞ values, consistent with lower CL/F (26%). Topiramate was generally well tolerated.
Half of usual dose is recommended for moderate-severe renal impairment and ESRD. Supplemental dose may be required during hemodialysis. Dose adjustments might not be required in moderate-severe hepatic impairments; however, the small sample size limits generalization.
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ABSTRACT: Emergency ligation of bleeding oesophageal varices using the Milnes Walker technique was performed in 38 patients. Haemorrhage continued or recurred in hospital in 11 patients, all of whom subsequently died. A further 10 patients died in hospital following operation from hepatic failure and a variety of other causes. Five patients were finally considered suitable for elective shunt surgery, but of 12 patients who were discharged without a further operation, only 2 have re-bled. Although the overall 6-month survival was 32 per cent, in patients with good preoperative liver function this rose to 71 per cent, and the simple scoring system for grading the severity of disturbance of liver function was found to be of value in predicting the outcome of surgery. Since the results of emergency ligation of bleeding oesophageal varices in our hands have been so disappointing we are currently using it less and are trying the mesenteric caval jump graft as an emergency operation for the control of bleeding varices.British Journal of Surgery 08/1973; 60(8):646-9. DOI:10.1002/bjs.1800600817 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Topiramate is a new antiepileptic drug which has recently become available in the United States and in a number of European countries. Pharmacological studies suggest that its mode of action is multifactorial and involves blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels, potentiation of GABAergic transmission and inhibition of excitatory pathways through an action at AMPA receptor sites. Carbonic anhydrase inhibiting properties have also been demonstrated but they are considered not to be relevant to anticonvulsant activity. Topiramate is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, peak plasma levels being usually attained in 2-3 hours. The drug is negligibly (9-17%) bound to plasma proteins and is eliminated partly by renal excretion in unchanged form and partly by oxidation and hydrolysis. In healthy volunteers, the half-life is about 20-30 hours, but elimination rate is accelerated in patients taking concomitant enzyme inducing drugs such as phenytoin, carbamazepine and barbiturates. Topiramate has no major effects on plasma levels of concurrent anticonvulsants, except for a rise in plasma phenytoin in occasional patients. In double-blind add-on trials in refractory partial epilepsy, a significant reduction in seizure frequency has been demonstrated in over 40% of topiramate-treated patients (vs about 10% of those treated with placebo), a response rate which compares favourably with that observed with other new antiepileptic drugs. Dosages found to be effective in add-on controlled trials range between 200 and 1000 mg day-1, although most patients are likely to benefit from receiving 400 mg day-1 or less. Preliminary data suggest that topiramate may be effective also in generalized epilepsies, but this needs to be confirmed in prospective studies. The most common adverse effects of topiramate are CNS-related and include dizziness, fatigue, visual disturbances, ataxia, mental slowing and impaired concentration. Paresthesias, anorexia, weight loss and increased risk of nephrolithiasis have been also reported. Many of these effects are related to dose and/or to rate of dose titration. Based on these data, topiramate appears to be a valuable new drug, whose main current indication is in the add-on management of refractory partial and secondarily generalized seizures. Studies on its potential-value as monotherapy are in progress.Pharmacological Research 05/1997; 35(4):241-56. DOI:10.1006/phrs.1997.0124 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Topiramate, a new antiepileptic drug effective in controlling partial-onset seizures, was administered to humans for the first time as single oral doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1,200 mg in a phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study. Model-independent pharmacokinetic data analysis was performed on plasma concentration and renal excretion data for topiramate. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were observed between 1.4 and 4.3 hours after administration. Mean values for plasma Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased linearly with dose; however, a greater-than-proportional increase in both parameters was observed, probably due to saturable binding of the drug to erythrocytes. Mean oral clearance (Cl/F) was 22.5 to 36.1 mL/min and mean volume of distribution (Vd/F) was 38.5 to 58.0 L. Approximately 50% of the dose was excreted renally and cumulative urinary excretion increased linearly and proportionally over the 200 mg to 1,200 mg dose range. Elimination half-life (t1/2) values calculated from plasma (21.5 hrs) and urinary data (18.5 hrs) were consistent and independent of dose. Intersubject variability was low for all parameters. Renal clearance was 13.9 mL/min, suggesting that renal tubular reabsorption may be prominently involved in the renal handling of topiramate. The elimination profile of topiramate indicated that longer sampling times are necessary in future studies to more accurately determine the t1/2. Food effect studies indicated a slight reduction in the rate (approximately 10% decrease in mean Cmax and mean tmax approximately 2 hours later) but not the extent of absorption when topiramate was given with food. Topiramate demonstrates a number of favorable pharmacokinetic features, including linear and predictable dose-concentration relationships, excretion mainly as unchanged drug by the kidney, a dose-independent t1/2, low intersubject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters, and lack of clinically significant effect of food on bioavailability.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/1996; 36(10):884-91. DOI:10.1002/j.1552-4604.1996.tb04754.x · 2.47 Impact Factor