Reply to: Rapid antidepressant effects and abuse liability of ketamine

Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 03/2014; 231(9). DOI: 10.1007/s00213-014-3544-z
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: To describe and assess trends in the use of hallucinogens and other adjunct drugs over a 5-year period. Repeated-measures cross-sectional survey. Annual magazine-based survey targeting people who use drugs in dance contexts. Lifetime use prevalence (ever used); age of first use; current use prevalence (any use within the last month), and extent of use within the last month (number of days used) for LSD, psilocybin, ketamine, GHB and nitrates. Prevalence increases for psilocybin, ketamine, GHB and nitrates use have been detected, with a sharp recent rise in current psilocybin use in 2002-2003 contrasting with more gradual and comprehensive evidence of increased ketamine use throughout the period 1999-2003. The declining prevalence of LSD use in general population surveys is replicated in this sentinel population study. The rise in prevalence of hallucinogen and other adjunct drugs identified among dance drug users may be mirrored by wider prevalence increases among young people with a consequent need to study these trends carefully and to develop effective interventions, where required.
    European Addiction Research 02/2007; 13(1):57-64. DOI:10.1159/000095816 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of R- and S-ketamine on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-activated cation currents (NMDA receptor currents) of voltage-clamped cultured rat hippocampal neurons were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Both enantiomers exhibited a voltage- and use-dependent blockade of NMDA receptor currents, with the S-enantiomer being about twice as potent as the R-enantiomer. Calculated relative forward and backward rates suggest that conformational differences influence the dissociation from the binding site more than the association with it.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 04/1992; 213(1):155-8. DOI:10.1016/0014-2999(92)90248-3 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on morphine-induced place preference were examined in mice. Morphine (1-5 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a dose-related place preference in mice. Ketamine alone (3, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), like dizocilpine alone (0.2 mg/ kg, i.p.), also produced a preference for the drug-associated place. Pretreatment with ketamine (10 mg/ kg, i.p.) or dizocilpine (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, i.p) suppressed the place preference produced by morphine in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provide the first demonstration that ketamine alone produces a place preference using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, but that mice treated with ketamine combined with morphine show neither a morphine- nor a ketamine-induced place preference.
    Life Sciences 07/2000; 67(4):383-9. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00639-1 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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