The co-repressor Rcor1 is essential for murine erythropoiesis.
ABSTRACT The co-repressor Rcor1 has been linked biochemically to hematopoiesis, but its function in vivo remains unknown. We show that mice deleted for Rcor1 are profoundly anemic and die in late gestation. Definitive erythroid cells from mutant mice arrest at the transition from proerythroblast to basophilic erythroblast. Remarkably, Rcor1 null erythroid progenitors cultured in vitro form myeloid colonies instead of erythroid colonies. The mutant proerythroblasts also aberrantly express genes of the myeloid lineage as well as genes typical of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) / progenitor cells. The Colony Stimulating Factor 2 Receptor Beta subunit (Csf2rb) which codes for a receptor implicated in myeloid cytokine signaling is a direct target for both Rcor1 and the transcription repressor Gfi1b in erythroid cells. In the absence of Rcor1, the Csf2rb gene is highly induced, and Rcor1(-/-) progenitors exhibit CSF2-dependent phospho-Stat5 hypersensitivity. Blocking this pathway can partially reduce myeloid colony formation by Rcor1-deficient erythroid progenitors. Thus, Rcor1 promotes erythropoiesis by repressing HSC/progenitor genes, as well as the genes and signaling pathways that lead to myeloid cell fate.
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ABSTRACT: Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) demethylates nucleosomal histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) residues in collaboration with the corepressor CoREST/REST corepressor 1 (Rcor1) and regulates cell fates by epigenetically repressing gene targets. The balanced regulation of this demethylase, if any, is however unknown. We now demonstrate the actions of two other Rcor paralogs, Rcor2 and Rcor3, in regulating LSD1 enzymatic activity and biological function in hematopoietic cells. All three Rcor proteins interact with LSD1 and with the erythro-megakaryocytic transcription factor growth factor independence (Gfi)1b; however, whereas Rcor2, like Rcor1, facilitates LSD1-mediated nucleosomal demethylation, Rcor3 competitively inhibits this process. Appending the SANT2 domain of Rcor1 to Rcor3 confers the ability to facilitate LSD1-mediated demethylation on the chimeric Rcor protein. Consistent with their biochemical activities, endogenous Rcor1, Rcor2, and LSD1 promote differentiation, whereas Rcor3 opposes these processes. Recruitment of Rcor3 to cognate gene targets by Gfi1b and LSD1 leads to inhibition of H3K4 demethylation of chromatin and transcriptional derepression of these loci. Remarkably, profound alterations in Rcor1/3 levels during erythroid versus megakaryocytic differentiation potentiate antagonistic outcomes. In mature erythroid cells, a strong upsurge in Rcor3 and a sharp decline in Rcor1 levels counteract LSD1/Rcor1/2-mediated differentiation. In contrast, the opposite changes in Rcor1/3 levels in megakaryocytes favor differentiation and likely maintain homeostasis between these lineages. Overall, our results identify Rcor3 as a natural inhibitor of LSD1 and highlight a dual mechanism of regulating the enzymatic activity and restraining the epigenetic impact of this robust demethylase during hematopoietic differentiation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The formation of mature cells by blood stem cells is very well understood at the cellular level and we know many of the key transcription factors that control fate decisions. However, many upstream signalling and downstream effector processes are only partially understood. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly useful in providing new directions to dissect these pathways. A GWAS meta-analysis identified 68 genetic loci controlling platelet size and number. Only a quarter of those genes, however, are known regulators of hematopoiesis. To determine function of the remaining genes we performed a medium-throughput genetic screen in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) to knock down protein expression, followed by histological analysis of selected genes using a wide panel of different hematopoietic markers. The information generated by the initial knockdown was used to profile phenotypes and to position candidate genes hierarchically in hematopoiesis. Further analysis of brd3a revealed its essential role in differentiation but not maintenance and survival of thrombocytes. Using the from-GWAS-to-function strategy we have not only identified a series of genes that represent novel regulators of thrombopoiesis and hematopoiesis, but this work also represents, to our knowledge, the first example of a functional genetic screening strategy that is a critical step toward obtaining biologically relevant functional data from GWA study for blood cell traits.PLoS Genetics 07/2014; 10(7):e1004450. · 8.17 Impact Factor