The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.
ABSTRACT Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period.
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ABSTRACT: The development of a 10-item self-report scale (EPDS) to screen for Postnatal Depression in the community is described. After extensive pilot interviews a validation study was carried out on 84 mothers using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for depressive illness obtained from Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview. The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, and was also sensitive to change in the severity of depression over time. The scale can be completed in about 5 minutes and has a simple method of scoring. The use of the EPDS in the secondary prevention of Postnatal Depression is discussed.The British Journal of Psychiatry 07/1987; 150:782-6. · 7.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two longitudinal experiments with 375 undergraduates investigated the role of depressive self-schemas in vulnerability to depression. Ss were divided into 5 groups hypothesized to be at differential risk for depression according to a schema model: depressed schematic, depressed nonschematic, nondepressed schematic, nondepressed nonschematic, and psychopathology control. In Exp I, Ss were followed regularly for 4 mo with self-report and clinical interview measures of depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory). There was no evidence of risk for depression associated with schema status apart from initial mood and no interaction of life stress events and schemas. In Exp II, links among self-schemas, information processing, and mood status were investigated. It was shown that depressive self-schemas did not exert an ongoing, active influence on everyday information processing; instead, current mood affected information processing. Remitted depressed Ss resembled nondepressed rather than depressed Ss. Findings support the distinction between concomitant and vulnerability schemas noted by N. Kuiper et al (in press) and help to clarify differences between cognitions that are symptoms of depression and those that may play a causal role under certain conditions. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10/1985; 49(5):1147-1159. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze the relationships between stressful life conditions, social support, and depressive symptomatology during pregnancy in women of low socioeconomic status and a comparison group of women of higher socioeconomic status. Study participants were recruited from four hospital prenatal care clinics. Low socioeconomic status was defined as no more than 11 years of education and a household income below the poverty level. Higher socioeconomic status was defined as at least 12 years of education and a household income at least one and one-half times the poverty level. All subjects were nulliparous, over 18 years of age, and French-speaking. Questionnaires were administered verbally at the participants' homes during the 30th week of pregnancy, approximately. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depressive symptomatology during the preceding 7 days. Approximately 47% of the low socioeconomic status women and 20% of the higher socioeconomic status women scored 10 or more on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating a depressive state. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that chronic stressors (eg, financial and housing problems), negative life events, and inadequate social support were all linked to high depressive symptomatology during pregnancy. During pregnancy, depressive symptoms are common, especially in women of low socioeconomic status, and are strongly related to socioenvironmental factors.Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/1995; 85(4):583-9. · 4.37 Impact Factor