Prior studies have found that early HIV protease inhibitors contribute to glucose dysregulation. Few randomized trials have evaluated glucose indices in antiretroviral-naive individuals on newer antiretroviral therapy (ART).
A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naive participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). Analyses used two-sample t-tests, Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression.
A5224s included 269 nondiabetic individuals: 85% men, 47% white non-Hispanic, baseline median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/ml and CD4 cell count 233 cells/μl. Overall, significant 96-week increases occurred in fasting glucose, insulin and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), P ≤ 0.004. Assignment to EFV (versus ATV/r) resulted in significantly greater glucose increase [mean difference 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 7.5 mg/dl; P = 0.006] but not insulin or HOMA-IR (P ≥ 0.72). Glucose indices were not significantly different between ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC arms, P ≥ 0.18. Significant correlations were detected between changes in glucose indices and changes in BMI; all r ≥ 0.23, P ≤ 0.001. In multivariable analyses, in addition to the EFV effect, higher baseline HIV-1 RNA and greater BMI change were significant independent factors associated with greater glucose increase.
Changes in glucose metabolism were not significantly different between TDF/FTC and ABC/3TC-based regimens. A small but significantly greater increase in glucose was observed in those assigned to EFV. As glucose dysregulation may increase with time on ART, longer term studies will be needed to further clarify the clinical significance of these findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The objective of this study was to assess the 48-week virological efficacy of atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) monotherapy vs. ATV/r along with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTIs) in HIV-1 treated individuals with HIV-RNA less than 50 copies/ml.
A multicentre, randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial. HIV-1 treated individuals on ATV/r 300/100 mg along with two NRTIs were randomized to receive ATV/r monotherapy or to maintain their antiretroviral regimen. The primary endpoint was the confirmed viral rebound (CVR: two consecutive HIV-RNA >50 copies/ml) or treatment discontinuation for any reason. Individuals who experienced CVR on ATV/r monotherapy reintroduced NRTIs and discontinued the study if HIV-RNA was more than 50 copies/ml after 12 weeks since reintensification.
One hundred and three patients enrolled. By week 48, 11 patients in ATV/r arm and two in ATV/r along with two NRTIs experienced CVR; four (8%) patients in ATV/r and eight (15%) in ATV/r along with two NRTIs discontinued. At the 48-week primary efficacy analysis (re-intensification = failure), treatment success was 73% in ATV/r arm and 85% in ATV/r along with two NRTIs [difference -12.1%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -27.8 to 2.1]. According to the analysis considering re-intensification is equal to success, treatment success was 92% in ATV/r arm and 85% in the ATV/r along with two NRTIs arm (difference 7.5%, 95% CI -4.7 to 19.8). At CVR, no mutation was observed in ATV/r arm and reintensification with NRTIs was effective in all individuals. Overall, Grade 3-4 (P = 0.003) and grade 3-4 drug-related (P = 0.027) adverse events were less frequent in ATV/r arm. A significant increase in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was observed as well as a significant improvement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, fasting glucose, liver fibrosis and alkaline phosphatase was observed in ATV/r monotherapy in comparison with ATV/r along with two NRTIs.
ATV/r monotherapy treatment simplification showed lower virological efficacy in comparison with maintaining triple therapy; NRTIs reintroduction was effective in all the individuals.
AIDS (London, England) 07/2014; 28(15). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000407 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among patients with HIV infection, changes in the kidney filtration marker cystatin C after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be related to changes in body composition or biomarkers of inflammation.
ACTG A5224s was a substudy of A5202, which randomly assigned ART-naive HIV-infected subjects to blinded abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir. This analysis explored changes in cystatin C from 0 to 96 weeks.
Of the 269 subjects, 85% were male and 66% white non-Hispanics; baseline mean CD4 count was 236 cells per cubic millimeter and cystatin C was 0.89 mg/L. Cystatin C decreased significantly within each arm; however, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir attenuated the beneficial effects of ART on cystatin C compared to EFV. Compared to ABC/3TC, TDF/FTC led to a marginally significant attenuation for percent change analyses only. Higher baseline body mass index and HIV RNA were associated with larger reductions in cystatin C in multivariable models. At baseline, cystatin C was positively correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Spearman r = 0.25), interleukin 6 (r = 0.34), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (r = 0.36), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (r = 0.54), tumor necrosis factor α (r = 0.57), and soluble TNF-α receptor I (r = 0.70, all P < 0.001). Reductions in cystatin C from 0 to 96 weeks correlated with reductions in all inflammatory biomarkers (r = 0.39-0.58, P < 0.001) except for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.01, P = 0.89) and IL-6 (r = 0.08, P = 0.24).
The beneficial effect of ART on cystatin C concentrations is attenuated by boosted ATV when compared to EFV. Reductions in cystatin C after ART are associated with reductions in systemic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Millions of HIV-infected Africans are living longer due to long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet little is known about glucose metabolism disorders in this group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders among HIV-infected adults on long-term ART to ART-naïve adults and HIV-negative controls, hypothesizing that the odds of glucose metabolism disorders would be 2-fold greater even after adjusting for possible confounders.
In this cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, consecutive adults (>18 years) attending an HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled in 3 groups: 153 HIV-negative controls, 151 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 150 HIV-infected on ART for ≥ 2 years. The primary outcome was the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders as determined by oral glucose tolerance testing. We compared glucose metabolism disorder prevalence between each HIV group vs. the control group by Fisher's exact test and used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with glucose metabolism disorders.
HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders (49/150 (32.7%) vs.11/153 (7.2%), p<0.001) and frank diabetes mellitus (27/150 (18.0%) vs. 8/153 (5.2%), p = 0.001) than HIV-negative adults, which remained highly significant even after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity and socioeconomic status (OR = 5.72 (2.78-11.77), p<0.001). Glucose metabolism disorders were significantly associated with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. Awareness of diabetes mellitus was <25%.
HIV-infected adults on long-term ART had 5-fold greater odds of glucose metabolism disorders than HIV-negative controls but were rarely aware of their diagnosis. Intensive glucose metabolism disorder screening and education are needed in HIV clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. Further research should determine how glucose metabolism disorders might be related to immune reconstitution.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0134410. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134410 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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