To analyze household smoking-ban prevalence over time and predictors among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations.
Baseline (2004) and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007) (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households) conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural) assessed household members' demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions.
Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities, with overall rates increasing from 23.9% (2004) to 45.3% (2007). Households with smokers adopted smoking bans at lower rates (6%-17%) versus those without smokers (which had an adoption rate of 35%-58%). Logistic regression models demonstrated that the associations between allowing smoking in households with no members who smoked and being located in a tobacco-growing community, being a Catholic household, and having a member with a cardiovascular problem were statistically significant. The association between having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition and prohibiting smoking in the home was not statistically significant.
Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those in early stages of tobacco control, basic awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities) may lead to statistically significant increases in household smoking-ban adoption, particularly among households with no smokers. An increase in household smoking-ban prevalence may result in changes in community norms that can lead to a further increase in the adoption of smoking bans. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may mitigate the establishment of household bans. Increasing individuals' knowledge about the far-reaching health effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children and nonsmoking adults (healthy or unhealthy) may help overcome these obstacles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial proportion of homes and automobiles serve as settings for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and many public settings that children frequent are still not smoke-free. Tobacco control efforts are attempting to increase smoking bans. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smokers and nonsmokers regarding smoking bans and child ETS exposure in multiple public and private settings and to report changes from 2000-2001.
Cross-sectional data from the annual Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control were analyzed for changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tobacco. These data were collected via automated, random-digit-dialing telephone surveys that were conducted in the summers of 2000 and 2001. The samples were weighted by race and gender to be representative of the US population.
Response rates for eligible adults actually contacted were 1501 (75%) of 1876 in 2000 and 3002 (84%) of 3566 in 2001. The majority of adults, both smokers and nonsmokers, support smoking bans in a wide variety of places. The percentage of all respondents reporting the presence of smoking bans in several public and private places increased from 2000-2001: the household (69%-74%), in the presence of children (84%-88%), convenience stores (68%-74%), fast-food restaurants (52%-58%), and non-fast-food restaurants (25%-28%). Support for smoking bans also increased in shopping malls (71%-75%), fast-food restaurants (77%-80%), and indoor sporting events (78%-80%). There were no significant changes in support for smoking bans in convenience stores, restaurants, or outdoor parks. Adults' knowledge of the harm caused by tobacco was unchanged, with the vast majority of adults recognizing the dangers of exposure to ETS from parental smoking (95%) and exposure to ETS in cars (77%).
Small improvements in adult attitudes and practices regarding children's ETS exposure occurred from 2000-2001. However, a significant number of adults in the United States still report ignorance of the harmful effects of child ETS exposure, and there was no improvement in reported knowledge in this 1-year period. In contrast, a growing majority of smokers and nonsmokers favor restrictions on smoking in public settings, suggesting that states and communities have public support for broad public smoking restriction policies. There are significant roles that pediatricians can play in preventing children's ETS exposure, through both patient and family education and by moving smoking restriction policies forward on their community's agenda.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Young children are vulnerable to the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in their own homes. Characteristics of households and the use of smoking bans (i.e., no smoking allowed) as an indicator of smoke exposure need to be understood before interventions can be developed to eliminate ETS exposure in homes where young children live.
This cross-sectional, descriptive study investigated demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, health of children, smoking practices, and the presence of smoking bans in households. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 226 English- and Spanish-speaking subjects, 18 to 50 years of age, including both smokers and nonsmokers. Cotinine levels of urine samples from children measured actual smoke exposure to confirm reports of home smoking policies.
Ethnicity of households (P < .001) and negative attitudes toward smoke exposure (P < .001) predicted the presence of smoking bans. The number of households with no or partial smoking bans correlated significantly with urine cotinine levels (r = .486); the presence of no or partial smoking bans predicted smoke exposure in households.
Because the use of smoking bans in predicting household smoke exposure has not been previously demonstrated, further study is needed to determine how smoking bans can be utilized to eliminate or reduce smoke exposure in homes where children live.
Journal of Pediatric Health Care 03/2006; 20(2):98-105. DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2005.08.006 · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.
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