Cyclodextrin Curcumin Formulation Improves Outcome in a Preclinical Pig Model of Marginal Kidney Transplantation
ABSTRACT Decreasing organ quality is prompting research toward new methods to alleviate ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Oxidative stress and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) activation are well-described elements of IRI. We added cyclodextrin-complexed curcumin (CDC), a potent antioxidant and NF-κB inhibitor, to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (Belzer's Solution, Viaspan), one of the most effective clinically approved preservative solutions. The effects of CDC were evaluated on pig endothelial cells and in an autologous donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplantation model in large white pigs. CDC allowed rapid and lasting uptake of curcumin into cells. In vitro, CDC decreased mitochondrial loss of function, improved viability and lowered endothelial activation. In vivo, CDC improved function recovery, lowered histological injury and doubled animal survival (83.3% vs. 41.7%). At 3 months, immunohistochemical staining for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis markers was intense in UW grafts while it remained limited in the UW + CDC group. Transcriptional analysis showed that CDC treatment protected against up-regulation of several pathophysiological pathways leading to inflammation, EMT and fibrosis. Thus, use of CDC in a preclinical transplantation model with stringent IRI rescued kidney grafts from an unfavorable prognosis. As curcumin has proved well tolerated and nontoxic, this strategy shows promise for translation to the clinic.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deceased after cardiac arrest donor are an additional source of kidney graft to overcome graft shortage. Deciphering the respective role of renal warm and cold ischemia is of pivotal interest in the transplantation process. METHODS: Using a preclinical pig model of renal auto-transplantation, we investigated the consequences of warm and cold ischemia on early innate and adaptive responses as well as graft outcome. Kidneys were subjected to either 60 min-warm ischemia (WI) or auto-transplanted after cold storage for 24 h at 4[degree sign]C (CS), or both conditions combined (WI + CS). Renal function, immune response and cytokine expression, oxidative stress and cell death were investigated at 3 h, 3 and 7 days (H3, D3 and D7) after reperfusion. At 3 months, we focused on cell infiltration and tissue remodelling. RESULTS: WI + CS induced a delayed graft function linked to higher tubular damage. Innate response occurred at D3 associated to a pro-oxidative milieu with a level dependent on the severity of ischemic injury whereas adaptive immune response occurred only at D7 mainly due to CS injuries and aggravated by WI. Graft cellular death was an early event detected at H3 and seems to be one of the first ischemia reperfusion injuries. These early injuries affect graft outcome on renal function, cells infiltration and fibrosis development. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the severe ischemic insult found in kidneys from deceased after cardiac arrest donor affects kidney outcome and promotes an uncontrolled deleterious innate and adaptive response not inhibited 3 months after reperfusion.Journal of Translational Medicine 05/2013; 11(1):129. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-11-129 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonimmune renal injury plays an important role in acute and chronic rejection by triggering an injury response through cytokine and chemokine release. Bioflavonoids are agents with potential immunosuppressive and renoprotective properties. We studied the effects of quercetin and curcumin, two bioflavonoids, on ischemia-reperfusion in the rat. Rats underwent 30 min of left renal pedicle occlusion with simultaneous right nephrectomy and were pretreated with quercetin or curcumin. Serial serum creatinine was measured, and renal expression of the chemokines regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and allograft inflammatory factor (AIF) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with quercetin or curcumin resulted in preservation of histological integrity, with a decrease in tubular damage and interstitial inflammation. On day 2 after ischemia-reperfusion, quercetin pretreatment decreased the mean serum creatinine level from 6.5+/-1.4 to 3.3+/-0.5 mg/dl (P=0.06). On day 7, the creatinine level for control animals was 7.5+/-1.5 mg/dl, which was significantly decreased by pretreatment with quercetin, curcumin, or both together (creatinine levels: 1.6+/-1.3, 1.8+/-0.2, and 2.0+/-0.4 mg/dl, respectively; all P<0.05 vs. untreated). By semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction, RANTES, MCP-1, and AIF were detected at high levels in kidneys on day 2 but not in normal kidneys. Pretreatment with quercetin or curcumin strongly attenuated this expression. Quercetin and curcumin reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury and its inflammatory sequelae. The bioflavonoids hold promise as agents that can reduce immune and nonimmune renal injury, the key risk factors in chronic graft loss.Transplantation 07/1998; 66(2):147-52. DOI:10.1097/00007890-199807270-00001 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion injury leads to delayed graft function, which is a major problem in kidney transplantation. This study investigated the effects of adding trimetazidine (TMZ) to the perfusate of cold-stored kidneys on the function of reperfused autotransplanted pig kidney. The left kidney was removed and cold-flushed with Euro-Collins (EC), or University of Wisconsin (UW) solutions with or without 10(-6)M TMZ and stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C. The kidneys were then autotransplanted and the contralateral kidneys were removed. Several parameters were analyzed over the 14 d after transplantation. The survival rate was 57% in pigs transplanted with kidneys cold-flushed with UW and 43% for those flushed with EC solution; it was 100% for pigs having kidneys cold-flushed with TMZ-supplemented UW and EC solutions. The functions of the transplanted kidneys were also better preserved after cold flush with TMZ-supplemented solutions than with TMZ-free solutions. Creatinine clearance was higher and the urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide and dimethylamine, used as markers of renal medulla injury, were lower in animals transplanted with kidneys cold-flushed with TMZ-supplemented solutions than with TMZ-free solutions. The cytoprotective action of TMZ also reduced interstitial and peritubular inflammation and the numbers of infiltrating mononuclear CD45+and CD3+ T cells. These results indicate that the tissue damage due to ischemia/reperfusion injury may be prevented, at least in part, by adding TMZ to preservation solutions.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2000; 11(1):138-48. · 9.47 Impact Factor