Coping as a predictor of treatment outcome in people at clinical high risk of psychosis.
ABSTRACT The concept of coping is relevant to recent models of psychosis, and people with established psychotic disorders have been found to predominately use maladaptive coping strategies. This study aimed to examine the general coping patterns of people at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) and to investigate whether pre-therapy coping behaviour plays a role in predicting responsiveness to early interventions.
One hundred twenty-eight help-seeking CHR outpatients were randomized into two treatment groups: either receiving integrated psychological intervention (IPI), including cognitive behaviour therapy, or supportive counselling (SC) for 12 months. Of those, 91 persons completed a Stress Coping Questionnaire (SCQ) at intake: 45 in the IPI group and 46 in the SC group. General coping behaviour in this sample was analysed and several regressions were conducted separately for each treatment group to examine coping as a predictor of outcome after 12 months of different forms of treatment.
Participants relied significantly more on negative than on positive coping strategies, t(90) = -7.185, P < 0.001, and within the positive strategies, stress control was the most preferred one, t(90) = 10.979, P < 0.001. Several pre-therapy coping strategies significantly predicted improvement in symptomatic outcome in both treatment groups, explaining between 16% and 25% of variance. The predictive value of coping was higher in the SC group.
Maladaptive coping behaviours were found to emerge in the early stages of psychosis and coping behaviour contributed significantly to the prediction of post-treatment symptom improvement. These findings indicate a need for psychosocial support and coping strategy enhancement in people at risk of psychosis.
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ABSTRACT: The identification of individuals at high risk of developing a psychotic disorder has long been a goal of clinicians because it is thought that early treatment of this group may prevent onset of the disorder. However, little is known of predictive factors of psychosis, even within a high-risk group. This study followed up 104 young people thought to be at 'ultra high risk' for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders by virtue of having a family history of psychotic disorder combined with some functional decline or the presence of subthreshold or self-limiting psychotic symptoms. All subjects were therefore symptomatic, but not psychotic, at intake. Thirty-six subjects (34.6%) developed frank psychotic symptoms within 12 months. Measures of symptom duration, functioning, disability and psychopathology were made at intake, 6 and 12 months. Poor functioning, long duration of symptoms, high levels of depression and reduced attention were all predictors of psychosis. A combination of family history of psychosis, a recent significant decrease in functioning and recent experience of subthreshold psychotic symptoms was also predictive of psychosis. Combining highly predictive variables yielded a method of psychosis prediction at 12 months with good positive predictive value (80.8%), negative predictive value (81.8%) and specificity (92.6%) and moderate sensitivity (60.0%). Within our symptomatic high-risk group, therefore, it appears possible to identify those individuals who are at particularly high risk of developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Given the very high PPV and low false positive rate with this two-step process, it may be justifiable to target these individuals for intensive monitoring of mental state and even low-dose neuroleptic medication or other biological and psychosocial treatments depending on clinical condition. This indicated prevention approach could be further developed and preventive strategies in the psychoses refined.Schizophrenia Research 05/2004; 67(2-3):131-42. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00192-0 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances in the ability to identify people at high risk of developing psychosis have generated interest in the possibility of preventing psychosis. To evaluate the efficacy of cognitive therapy for the prevention of transition to psychosis. A randomised controlled trial compared cognitive therapy with treatment as usual in 58 patients at ultra-high risk of developing a first episode of psychosis. Therapy was provided over 6 months, and all patients were monitored on a monthly basis for 12 months. Logistic regression demonstrated that cognitive therapy significantly reduced the likelihood of making progression to psychosis as defined on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale over 12 months. In addition, it significantly reduced the likelihood of being prescribed antipsychotic medication and of meeting criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Analysis of covariance showed that the intervention also significantly improved positive symptoms of psychosis in this population over the 12-month period Cognitive therapy appears to be an acceptable and efficacious intervention for people at high risk of developing psychosis.The British Journal of Psychiatry 11/2004; 185:291-7. DOI:10.1192/bjp.185.4.291 · 7.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies of coping in applied settings often confront the need to minimize time demands on participants. The problem of participant response burden is exacerbated further by the fact that these studies typically are designed to test multiple hypotheses with the same sample, a strategy that entails the use of many time-consuming measures. Such research would benefit from a brief measure of coping assessing several responses known to be relevant to effective and ineffective coping. This article presents such a brief form of a previously published measure called the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), which has proven to be useful in health-related research. The Brief COPE omits two scales of the full COPE, reduces others to two items per scale, and adds one scale. Psychometric properties of the Brief COPE are reported, derived from a sample of adults participating in a study of the process of recovery after Hurricane Andrew.International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 02/1997; 4(1):92-100. DOI:10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_6 · 2.63 Impact Factor