Article

Mucosal expression of aquaporin 5 and epithelial barrier proteins in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps

American journal of otolaryngology (Impact Factor: 1.08). 12/2013; 35(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.11.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to characterize the association between altered epithelial barrier function, represented by changes in histology and differential expression of the mucosal water membrane permeability protein aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and the pathophysiology of chronic refractory sinusitis (CRS) in patients with and without nasal polyposis.
Prospective clinical study.
Tertiary rhinology referral center.
Sinonasal samples were obtained from seven CRS subjects with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), seven CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP), and five control healthy patients.
Mucosal membrane changes were evaluated through hematoxylin and eosin staining of the membrane barrier and immunohistochemical staining of AQP5 expression, a membrane channel protein that affects trans-epithelial water permeability and tissue edema. AQP5 expression was confirmed by real-time PCR (rt-PCR) and western blot. Levels of other membrane proteins, including E-cadherin and Septin-2, were also assessed.
CRSwNP patients showed substantial histologic evidence of membrane remodeling with increased edema and glandular hyperplasia. The epithelial expression of AQP5 was significantly lower in CRSwNP as compared to CRSsNP or control. There was no significant difference in the expression of E-cadherin and Septin-2.
Collectively, these data suggest that the mucosal epithelial barrier is compromised in the context of CRS (predominantly in CRSwNP) when compared to control and that AQP5 acts as a key tight junction protein in the maintenance of mucosal water homeostasis. We hypothesize that AQP5 plays a possible role in the pathophysiology of mucosal edema and polyp formation.

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Available from: Alan H Shikani, Feb 12, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Thickened secretions, mucosal edema, and polyp formation are pathological features in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that could theoretically be caused by aberrant water flow through sinonasal mucosa. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins with roles in water transport, with tissue-specific expression profiles. This study aims to determine if AQP expression in sinonasal mucosa is different between normal controls and patients with CRS, either with (CRSwNP) or without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps.Methods During endoscopic sinus surgery or transsphenoidal surgery, sinonasal tissue was collected and classified as CRSwNP (n = 13), CRSsNP (n = 10), or normal (n = 10). Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of human AQP0 to AQP12b was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular localization of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7, and AQP11 was determined by immunohistochemistry.ResultsmRNA of AQP0 to AQP11 was identified in all samples. AQP12b mRNA was not detected. Significant differences in the mRNA expression levels of AQP4 and AQP11 were identified between normal and CRSwNP patients (p < 0.05). Differences in the cellular localization of AQPs were observed in both CRSsNP and CRSwNP patients vs normal controls. More intense localization to the cell cytoplasm was observed for AQP5 in glandular epithelium (CRSwNP; p < 0.05) and surface epithelium (CRSsNP; p < 0.05), and AQP4 in glandular epithelium (CRSsNP; p < 0.05).Conclusion This study characterized AQP mRNA expression and protein localization in normal human sinonasal tissue. Significant differences in mRNA expression were found for AQP4 and AQP11 in CRSwNP and differences in protein localization patterns of AQP4 and AQP5 were identified in both types of CRS.
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