Hearing Impairment Associated With Depression in US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010
ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE Depression among hearing impaired US adults has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 18 years or older (N = 18 318) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2010, a nationally representative sample. INTERVENTIONS Multistage probability sampling of US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Depression, assessed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and hearing impairment (HI), assessed by self-report and audiometric examination for adults aged 70 years or older. RESULTS The prevalence of moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score, ≥10) was 4.9% for individuals reporting excellent hearing, 7.1% for those with good hearing, and 11.4% for participants who reported a little trouble or greater HI. Using excellent hearing as the reference, after adjusting for all covariates, multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8) for good hearing, 1.7 (1.3-2.2) for a little trouble, 2.4 (1.7-3.2) for moderate trouble, 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for a lot of trouble, and 0.6 (0.1-2.6) for deaf. Moderate HI (defined by better ear pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz within the range 35- to 49-dB hearing level) was significantly associated with depression among older women (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3-11.3), after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, lifestyle characteristics, and selected health conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for health conditions and other factors, including trouble seeing, self-reported HI and audiometrically determined HI were significantly associated with depression, particularly in women. Health care professionals should be aware of an increased risk for depression among adults with hearing loss.
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ABSTRACT: The cochlear implant provides auditory cues to profoundly deaf patients by electrically stimulating the primary auditory neurons (ANs) of the cochlea. However, ANs degenerate in deafness; the preservation of a robust AN target population, in combination with advances in cochlear implant technology, may provide improved hearing outcomes for cochlear implant patients. The exogenous delivery of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 is well known to support AN survival in deafness, and cell-based therapies provide a potential clinically viable option for delivering neurotrophins into the deaf cochlea. This study utilized cells that were genetically modified to express BDNF and encapsulated in alginate microspheres, and investigated AN survival in the deaf guinea pig following (a) cell-based neurotrophin treatment in conjunction with chronic electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant, and (b) long-term cell-based neurotrophin delivery. In comparison to deafened controls, there was significantly greater AN survival following the cell-based neurotrophin treatment, and there were ongoing survival effects for at least six months. In addition, functional benefits were observed following cell-based neurotrophin treatment and chronic electrical stimulation, with a statistically significant decrease in electrically evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds observed during the experimental period. This study demonstrates that cell-based therapies, in conjunction with a cochlear implant, shows potential as a clinically transferable means of providing neurotrophin treatment to support AN survival in deafness. This technology also has the potential to deliver other therapeutic agents, and to be used in conjunction with other biomedical devices for the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Controlled Release 12/2014; 198. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.11.026 · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. Methods: A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. Results: About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. Conclusions: Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people's health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98912. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098912 · 3.53 Impact Factor