Does Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage require eradication prior to elective ambulatory surgery in children?
ABSTRACT Rates of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus, and particularly of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children, have increased in recent years. We investigated rates of nasal colonization of S. aureus, and a possible correlation between nasal carriage and wound infection.
A prospective study of children scheduled for elective day-care surgical procedures between January 2008 and December 2012 at one medical center. Nasal swabs were taken before surgery, and follow-up was performed 1-2 weeks following surgery.
Of 1,127 children (median age 2 years, 70.6 % males), positive nasal swabs were detected in 228 (20.2 %). Rates of S. aureus nasal carriage were lowest for ages 6 months to 2 years and highest for ages 4-11 years. Child's sex did not associate with the risk for positive nasal swabs. Positive nasal swabs for MRSA were detected in five boys (0.62 % of the population). Five children (0.44 %) had wound infection. None of them was a nasal carrier.
No correlation was observed between positive nasal swabs and wound infection in children who were candidates for elective ambulatory operations. This suggests that evaluation of S. aureus nasal carriage and eradication may not be necessary in this population.
SourceAvailable from: Heiman Wertheim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infections in both the community and hospital. Worldwide, the increasing resistance of this pathogen to various antibiotics complicates treatment of S aureus infections. Effective measures to prevent S aureus infections are therefore urgently needed. It has been shown that nasal carriers of S aureus have an increased risk of acquiring an infection with this pathogen. The nose is the main ecological niche where S aureus resides in human beings, but the determinants of the carrier state are incompletely understood. Eradication of S aureus from nasal carriers prevents infection in specific patient categories-eg, haemodialysis and general surgery patients. However, recent randomised clinical trials in orthopaedic and non-surgical patients failed to show the efficacy of eliminating S aureus from the nose to prevent subsequent infection. Thus we must elucidate the mechanisms behind S aureus nasal carriage and infection to be able to develop new preventive strategies. We present an overview of the current knowledge of the determinants (both human and bacterial) and risks of S aureus nasal carriage. Studies on the population dynamics of S aureus are also summarised.The Lancet Infectious Diseases 01/2006; 5(12):751-62. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70295-4 · 19.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aims of the study presented here were to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage and, specifically, community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage in children and their parents in Israel and to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates. S. aureus was isolated from 580 of 3,373 (17.2%) individuals screened. The predominant type identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was strain ST45-MSSA (25%). Five MRSA isolates were detected, and two of these were classified as CA-MRSA, based on the following criteria: no previous contact with a healthcare facility, absence of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, and presence of SCCmec type IV. Isolates were negative for pvl and were classified as ST-45-MRSA. Although CA-MRSA is still rare in Israel, the genetic relatedness of the strains found in this study to a successful MSSA clone warrants close follow up.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2006; 25(11):719-22. DOI:10.1007/s10096-006-0210-3 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: From July 2005 to October 2006, a total of 3,046 children, of ages between 2 months and 5 years, presented for a well-child health care visit to one of three medical centers, which are located in the northern, central, and southern parts of Taiwan, and were surveyed for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The overall prevalences of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among the children were 23% and 7.3%, respectively (18% and 4.8% in the central region, 25% and 6.7% in the southern region, and 27% and 9.5% in the northern region). Of the 212 MRSA isolates (96%) available for analysis, a total of 10 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns with two major patterns (C [61%] and D [28%]) were identified. One hundred forty-nine isolates (70%) contained type IV staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) DNA, and 55 isolates (26%) contained SCCmec V(T). The presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes was detected in 60 isolates (28%). Most MRSA isolates belonged to one of two major clones, characterized as sequence type 59 (ST59)/PFGE C/SCCmec IV/absence of PVL genes (59%) and ST59/PFGE D/SCCmec V(T)/presence of PVL genes (25%). We concluded that between 2005 and 2006, 7.3% of healthy Taiwanese children were colonized by MRSA in nares. MRSA harbored in healthy children indicates an accelerated spread in the community.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2008; 45(12):3992-5. DOI:10.1128/JCM.01202-07 · 4.23 Impact Factor