Article

Performance of formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate in Indigenous Australians with and without Type 2 diabetes: The eGFR Study

Diabetic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.06). 03/2014; 31(7). DOI: 10.1111/dme.12426

ABSTRACT AimsIt has been proposed that the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula estimates glomerular filtration rate more accurately than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. With the very high incidence of diabetes and end-stage kidney disease in Indigenous Australians, accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate is vital in early detection of kidney disease. We aimed to assess the performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Cockcroft–Gault formulas in Indigenous Australians with and without diabetes. Methods
Indigenous Australians with (n = 224) or without (n = 340) Type 2 diabetes had a reference glomerular filtration rate measure using plasma disappearance of iohexol (measured glomerular filtration rate) over 4 h. Serum creatinine was measured by an enzymatic method. Performance was assessed by bias (measured glomerular filtration rate – estimated glomerular filtration rate) and accuracy (percentage of estimated glomerular filtration rate within 30% of measured glomerular filtration rate). ResultsThe median measured glomerular filtration rate (interquartile range) in participants with or without diabetes was 97 (68–119) and 108 (90–122) ml min−1 1.73 m−2, respectively. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula had smaller bias and greater accuracy than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Cockcroft–Gault formulas overall, for participants both with and without diabetes. However, for estimated glomerular filtration rate > 90 ml min−1 1.73 m−2, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula had greater bias in participants with diabetes, underestimating measured glomerular filtration rate by 7.4 vs. 1.0 ml min−1 1.73 m−2 in those without diabetes. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula was less accurate across the whole range of estimated glomerular filtration rates in participants with vs. those without diabetes (87.1% vs. 93.3%). Conclusions
The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula outperforms the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Cockcroft–Gault formulas overall in Indigenous Australians with and without diabetes. However, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula has greater bias in people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes, especially in those with normal renal function.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Richard Macisaac, Jul 22, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: More than two decades ago, hyperfiltration (HF) in diabetes was postulated to be a maladaptive response observed early in the course of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which may eventually predispose to irreversible damage to nephrons and development of progressive renal disease. Despite this, the potential mechanisms leading to renal HF in diabetes are not fully understood, although several hypotheses have been proposed, including alterations in glomerular haemodynamic function and tubulo-glomerular feedback. Furthermore, the role of HF as a causative factor in renal disease progression is still unclear and warrants further prospective longer-term studies. Although HF has been entrenched as the first stage in the classic albuminuric pathway to end-stage renal disease in DKD, and HF has been shown to predict the progression of albuminuria in many, but not all studies, the concept that HF predisposes to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3, that is, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline to < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, remains to be proved. Further long-term studies of GFR gradients therefore are required to establish whether HF ultimately leads to decreased kidney function, after adjustment for glycaemic control and other confounders. Whether reversal of HF with therapeutic agents is protective against reducing the risk of development of albuminuria and renal impairment is also worth investigating in prospective randomized trials.
    Diabetes & Metabolism 11/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1016/j.diabet.2014.10.003 · 2.85 Impact Factor