Incidence of mild cognitive impairment in the Pittsburgh Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and patterns of progression from incident MCI to dementia in 285 cognitively normal subjects (mean age, 78.9 years) in the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study from 1998-1999 to 2010-2011. RESULTS: Two hundred (70%) of the participants progressed to MCI; the age-adjusted incidence of MCI was 111.09 (95% confidence interval, 88.13-142.95) per 1,000 person-years. A total of 107 (53.5%) of the incident MCI subjects progressed to dementia. The mean time from MCI to dementia was 2.8 +/- 1.8 years. Forty (20%) of the incident MCI cases had an "unstable" course: 19 (9.5%) converted to MCI and later returned to normal; 10 (5%) converted to MCI, to normal, and later back to MCI; 7 (3.5%) converted to MCI, to normal, to MCI, and later to dementia; and 4 (2%) converted to MCI, to normal, and later to dementia. There was an increased mortality rate among the cognitively normal group (110.10 per 1,000 person-years) compared to those with incident MCI who converted to dementia (41.32 per 1,000 person-years). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the subjects aged >80 years developed an MCI syndrome, and half of them progressed to dementia. Once the MCI syndrome was present, the symptoms of dementia appeared within 2 to 3 years. Progression from normal to MCI or from normal to MCI to dementia is not always linear; subjects who developed MCI and later returned to normal can subsequently progress to dementia. Competing mortality and morbidity influence the study of incident MCI and dementia in population cohorts.
Anales de Psicologia 01/2014; 30(1):372-379. DOI:10.6018/analesps.30.1.150711
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ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia are common problems in the elderly. Primary care physicians are the first point of contact for most patients with these disorders and should be familiar with their diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Both mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia are characterized by objective evidence of cognitive impairment. The main distinctions between mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia are that in the latter, more than one cognitive domain is invariably involved and substantial interference with daily life is evident. The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia is based mainly on the history and cognitive examination. The prognosis for mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia is an important motivation for diagnosis because in both, there is a heightened risk for further cognitive decline. The etiology of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia can often be established through the clinical examination, although imaging and other laboratory tests may also contribute. Although Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of both, cerebrovascular disease and Lewy body disease make important contributions. Pharmacological treatments are of modest value in mild dementia due to Alzheimer disease, and there are no approved pharmacological treatments for mild cognitive impairment of any etiology. Nonetheless, new-onset cognitive impairment is a worrisome symptom to patients and families that demands answers and advice. If a patient is having difficulties managing medications, finances, or transportation independently, diagnosis and intervention are necessary to ensure the health and safety of the patient.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 10/2014; 89(10):1452-1459. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.06.019 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use a novel imaging biomarker to assess associations between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia. We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4 years) from the multisite Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n = 724), Alzheimer's dementia patients (n = 104), and people with mild cognitive impairment (n = 135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry to analyze regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex, and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration.Neurobiology of Aging 08/2014; 36. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.05.036 · 4.85 Impact Factor