Early Experiences Implementing Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention in San Francisco

PLoS Medicine (Impact Factor: 14.43). 03/2014; 11(3):e1001613. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001613
Source: PubMed


Albert Liu and colleagues report early experiences with uptake and delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP)for HIV prevention in three different settings in San Francisco. PrEP can be an important component of a comprehensive HIV prevention program and can complement efforts to increase HIV testing, linkage to care, and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
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Available from: Shannon Weber, Apr 29, 2014
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    • "While oral PrEP has been approved for use in high-risk populations in the United States [7], decisions about vaginal microbicide gel may still be several years away as regulators await confirmatory results from the FACTS 001 trial. Furthermore, despite commonalities between oral and vaginal ARV-based products for HIV prevention, their introduction strategies may require different approaches. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Current HIV prevention options are unrealistic for most women; however, HIV prevention research has made important strides, including on-going development of antiretroviral-based vaginal microbicide gels. Nevertheless, social-behavioural research suggests that women's ability to access and use new HIV prevention technologies will be strongly influenced by a range of socio-cultural, gender and structural factors which should be addressed by communications and marketing strategies, so that these products can be positioned in ways that women can use them. Methods: Based on an extensive literature review and in-country policy consultation, consisting of approximately 43 stakeholders, we describe barriers and facilitators to HIV prevention, including potential microbicide use, for four priority audiences of Kenyan women (female sex workers [FSWs], women in stable and discordant relationships, and sexually active single young women). We then describe how messages that position microbicides might be tailored for each audience of women. Results: We reviewed 103 peer-reviewed articles and reports. In Kenya, structural factors and gender inequality greatly influence HIV prevention for women. HIV risk perception and the ability to consistently use condoms and other prevention products often vary by partner type. Women in stable relationships find condom use challenging because they connote a lack of trust. However, women in other contexts are often able to negotiate condom use, though they may face challenges with consistent use. These women include FSWs who regularly use condoms with their casual clients, young women in the initial stages of a sexual relationship and discordant couples. Thus, we consider two approaches to framing messages aimed at increasing general awareness of microbicides - messages that focus strictly on HIV prevention and ones that focus on other benefits of microbicides such as increased pleasure, intimacy or sexual empowerment, in addition to HIV prevention. Conclusions: If carefully tailored, microbicide communication materials may facilitate product use by women who do not currently use any HIV prevention method. Conversely, message tailoring for women with high-risk perception will help ensure that microbicides are used as additional protection, together with condoms.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2014; 17(3 Suppl 2):19151. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.3.19151 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The effect of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on uptake, adherence, and sexual practices. We aimed to assess these factors in a cohort of HIV-negative people at risk of infection. Methods In our cohort study, men and transgender women who have sex with men previously enrolled in PrEP trials (ATN 082, iPrEx, and US Safety Study) were enrolled in a 72 week open-label extension. We measured drug concentrations in plasma and dried blood spots in seroconverters and a random sample of seronegative participants. We assessed PrEP uptake, adherence, sexual practices, and HIV incidence. Statistical methods included Poisson models, comparison of proportions, and generalised estimating equations. Findings We enrolled 1603 HIV-negative people, of whom 1225 (76%) received PrEP. Uptake was higher among those reporting condomless receptive anal intercourse (416/519 [81%] vs 809/1084 [75%], p=0·003) and having serological evidence of herpes (612/791 [77%] vs 613/812 [75%] p=0·03). Of those receiving PrEP, HIV incidence was 1·8 infections per 100 person-years, compared with 2·6 infections per 100 person-years in those who concurrently did not choose PrEP (HR 0·51, 95% CI 0·26–1·01, adjusted for sexual behaviours), and 3·9 infections per 100 person-years in the placebo group of the previous randomised phase (HR 0·49, 95% CI 0·31–0·77). Among those receiving PrEP, HIV incidence was 4·7 infections per 100 person-years if drug was not detected in dried blood spots, 2·3 infections per 100 person-years if drug concentrations suggested use of fewer than two tablets per week, 0·6 per 100 person-years for use of two to three tablets per week, and 0·0 per 100 person-years for use of four or more tablets per week (p<0·0001). PrEP drug concentrations were higher among people of older age, with more schooling, who reported non-condom receptive anal intercourse, who had more sexual partners, and who had a history of syphilis or herpes. Interpretation PrEP uptake was high when made available free of charge by experienced providers. The effect of PrEP is increased by greater uptake and adherence during periods of higher risk. Drug concentrations in dried blood spots are strongly correlated with protective benefit. Funding US National Institutes of Health.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 09/2014; 14(9). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70847-3 · 22.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ARV-based HIV prevention methods available in pill, gel or ring formulations (broadly referred to as microbicides) offer the possibility of protection against HIV for women who find it difficult because they cannot ask their partners to use condoms or even refuse sex. Partial efficacy of ARV-based medications has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials around the world among various populations, building the evidence that ARV-based technologies will contribute to reducing the AIDS epidemic worldwide. Disappointing results, however, from two trials in sub-Saharan Africa, where poor adherence contributed to study closure due to futility, have raised questions about whether women at the centre of the epidemic are able to effectively use products that require routine use. Also, there are fears by some of risk compensation by decreased condom use because of the availability of microbicides when only partial efficacy has been demonstrated in microbicide trials to date. Of note, sub-analyses of biologic measures of adherence in trials where this was possible have shown a strong correlation between good adherence and efficacy, reinforcing the necessity of good adherence. Research conducted in conjunction with clinical trials and post-trials in advance of possible rollout of ARV-based products have examined social and cultural factors, gender-related and otherwise, influencing adherence and other aspects of women's use of products. These include HIV stigma, women's perception of risk, partner and community influences and the differing needs of women in various stages of life and in different circumstances. It is the purpose of this supplement to give voice to the needs of women who can benefit from woman-initiated methods by presenting research results and commentary to contribute to the global conversation about optimizing women's experience with ARV-based prevention.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2014; 17(3 Suppl 2):19356. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.3.19356 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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