Parenting under the influence: The effects of opioids, alcohol and cocaine on mother–child interaction

Addictive behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.76). 05/2014; 39(5):897–900. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.02.003


Nearly 20% of adults receiving treatment for a substance use disorder live with their minor children (Stanger et al., 1999) and women in drug use treatment are twice as likely as men to have children in their household (Wechsberg et al., 1998). Parental drug use impacts the family through reduced family resources such as money and food, and researchers consistently note parenting deficits among substance users (Solis, Shadur, Burns, & Hussong, 2012). Little is known about differences in parenting and mother–child interaction among mothers with different drugs of choice or among mothers of older children, between 8 and 16 years. This study reports the findings from a sample of treatment seeking opioid, alcohol and cocaine using mothers and their 8–16-year-old child. Findings from a mother–child observational task and self-reported parenting measure indicated less undermining autonomy and higher mother maternal acceptance among opioid compared to alcohol addicted mothers. African American mothers were observed to have fewer negative interactional behaviors than Whites and both African American mothers and children self-reported higher firm control and maternal acceptance. Overall, mothers appeared to struggle with effective discipline with older versus younger children. Findings offer useful information to clinicians seeking to effectively tailor their interventions to women and children who present with different drugs of abuse, race/culture and developmental stage of child.

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Available from: Xin Feng, Jan 06, 2015
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    • "In addition, mothers in dual SUD couples reported significantly more depressive symptoms than mothers with SUD partners. This finding is not surprising given the well-evidenced association between SUD and mood disorders (Grant et al., 2004; Kessler et al., 2003; Luthar & Sexton, 2007) and previous research showing that relative to living with SUD partners, mothers' SUD is associated with higher negative affect (see Gruber & Taylor, 2006 for a review; Hien & Honeyman, 2000; Pears et al., 2007; Slesnick et al., 2014). Our findings are therefore consistent with literature suggesting that dual SUD may create greater risk for children in these homes (Dube et al., 2001; Osborne & Berger, 2009; Walsh et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 02/2015; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.01.017 · 2.47 Impact Factor