To report the outcomes of an institutional protocol for periprocedural anticoagulant (AC) management in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Children being treated for ALL who received full-dose (therapeutic) anticoagulation before undergoing at least 1 lumbar puncture (LP) were included in this retrospective cohort study. The main outcome was the risk of traumatic LP; exploratory analysis included the risks of symptomatic spinal hematoma and progression/recurrence of the thrombotic event. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression analysis with a generalized estimating equation approach.
Twenty-two children with ALL receiving an AC underwent a total of 396 LPs. Although traumatic LP was associated with full-dose AC therapy in univariable analysis, a multiple logistic regression model controlling for other risk factors for traumatic LP showed that AC therapy was not significantly associated with the risk of traumatic LP when the ACs were held as per the institutional protocol. No patient developed symptomatic spinal hematoma. Exploratory analysis revealed that AC dose, a likely marker of thrombus burden, was significantly associated with progression/recurrence of the thrombotic event in univariable analysis.
In our cohort, recent AC therapy was not statistically associated with an increased risk of bleeding after LP when following a specific protocol for periprocedural AC management. The risk associated with the progression/recurrence of thromboembolic events requires further evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) can affect children of all ages, requiring considerable pharmacologic intervention and is often associated with significant morbidity. Current research efforts are directed toward the development of risk-stratified VTE prevention strategies employing pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, the optimization of conventional anticoagulation, and the investigation of the safety and efficacy of target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) in children.
Recent research has considerably improved the understanding of risk factors of hospital-acquired VTE and how these factors may be employed in risk-stratified paradigms for VTE prevention in children. Additional insight has been gained in the optimization of conventional anticoagulants in special populations such as neonates and children with inflammatory conditions, and in improving the overall safety and compliance with periprocedural anticoagulation and the use of home International Normalized Ratio monitoring. Furthermore, the use of TSOACs has been described in children and is the focus of numerous ongoing clinical trials that are evaluating the safety and efficacy of these agents in children with VTE.
Identification of hospital-acquired VTE risk factors may inform pediatric VTE prevention strategies. Although initial use of TSOACs may be promising, investigation of safety and efficacy in children is still underway.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics 02/2015; 27(1):18-25. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000173 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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