How accurate is our prediction of biopsy outcome? PCA3-based nomograms in personalized diagnosis of prostate cancer
ABSTRACT The sensitivity and specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone to select men for prostate biopsy remain suboptimal. This review aims at presenting a review of current prostate cancer (PCa) nomograms that incorporate Prostate Cancer Gene 3 (PCA3), which was designed to outperform PSA at predicting biopsy outcome.
The PubMed database and current literature search was conducted for reports on PCA3-based nomograms and tools for examining the risk of a positive prostate biopsy in a man without a known PCa diagnosis.
The introduction of PCA3 into clinical practice has led to the development of a set of PCA3-based nomograms to predict biopsy outcome. Combining PCA3 results with established PCa risk factors has produced significant improvements over PSA alone in predicting the risk of a positive prostate biopsy for cancer.
SourceAvailable from: Jakub Dobruch[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction In some patients submitted to transurethral resection of the prostatic (TURP) or prostatectomy (OAE) due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), pathological evaluations (PE) revealed coexistence of prostate cancer (PCa) and BPH. The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence of PCa diagnosed incidentally in prostate specimens taken during BPH surgery, to assess the need of routine PE and to define the group of patients in whom PE could be abandoned without the risk of omitting clinically significant PCa. Material and methods 968 consecutive men were subjected to surgical treatment due to BPH in Jan. 2004–Sep. 2010. Results 823 (85%) underwent TURP and 145 (15%) OAE. Incidental (Inc) PCa was diagnosed in 34(3.5%) pts. T1a and T1b stages were determined in 19 (2%) and 15 (1.5%) cases. Preoperative prostate biopsy due to abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) or digital rectal exam (DRE) was performed in 85 (8.8%) pts. Of PCa pts, 7 (20.58%) had undergone a cancer negative biopsy preoperatively. In BPH pts, 78 (8.35%) had undergone a prostate biopsy previously (p <0.01). Univariate and logit regression analyses had not revealed any correlations between age, Pv, serum PSA and frequency of IncPCa. The difference in rate of PCa diagnosed in patients with PSAD ≥0.15 and <0.15 was 8 pts (14.04%) and 20 pts (4.05%), respectively (p <0.001). Gls in those pts was >6 only in 4 cases. Conclusions Despite the fact of low PCa detection rate observed in our study, this condition was clinically relevant in 15 (1.5%) subjects. It is difficult to establish any cut off values of pts’ age, Pv, serum PSA level suggestive of negligible risk for prostate cancer.08/2014; 67(3):227-32. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2014.03.art2
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms in elderly men. The precancerous lesion of PCa is considered a high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasm (HG-PIN), while atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) is commonly considered as an under-diagnosed cancer. The aim of the study was to establish the impact of ASAP and extensive HG-PIN on pre-biopsy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and the risk of cancer development in subsequent biopseis.Material and methodsThe 1,010 men suspected for PCa were included in the study based on elevated PSA, and/or positive rectal examination. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided 10 core biopsy was performed. In those with extensive HG-PIN or ASAP on the first biopsy, and/or elevated PSA value, a second biopsy was performed.ResultsIn the second biopsy, PCa was diagnosed in 6 of 19 patients (31.57%) with extensive HG-PIN, in four of 40 (10%) with BPH, and in 4 of 18 (22.22%) with ASAP.There was a statistically significant difference between the values of PSA in the group of patients with ASAP in comparison to those with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (p = 0.005) as well as in patients with HG-PIN in comparison to BPH (p = 0.02).ConclusionsA precancerous lesion diagnosed upon biopsy causes a statistically significant increase in the values of PSA in relation to BPH, as well as in the case of ASAP and extensive HG-PIN.The estimate of risk of PCa diagnosis in patients with ASAP and those with extensive HG-PIN in the first biopsy is comparable, which is why there are no reasons for different treatment of patients with the above-mentioned diagnoses. Both should be subjected to urgent second biopsy in around the 4-6 weeks following the initial biopsy.06/2014; 67(2):136-41. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2014.02.art4